You are the salt
of the earth. But if the salt lose its savour, wherewith shall it be salted?
It is good for nothing any more but to be cast out, and to be trodden on
by men. You are the light of the world. A city seated on a mountain cannot
be hid. Neither do men light a candle and put it under a bushel, but upon
a candlestick, that it may shine to all that are in the house. So let your
light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your
Father who is in heaven.
And he said to
them: Doth a candle come in to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and
not to be set on a candlestick? For there is nothing hid, which shall not
be made manifest: neither was it made secret, but that it may come abroad.
If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.
Now no man lighting
a candle covereth it with a vessel, or putteth it under a bed; but setteth
it upon a candlestick, that they who come in may see the light. For there
is not any thing secret that shall not be made manifest, nor hidden, that
shall not be known and come abroad...
...No man lighteth a candle, and putteth it in a hidden place, nor under
a bushel; but upon a candlestick, that they that come in, may see the light.
The light of thy body is thy eye. If thy eye be single, thy whole body will
be lightsome: but if it be evil, thy body also will be darksome. Take heed
therefore, that the light which is in thee, be not darkness. If then thy
whole body be lightsome, having no part of darkness; the whole shall be
lightsome; and as a bright lamp, shall enlighten thee.
By St. John Chryostom
"But if the salt
have lost its savor, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good
for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men."
For other men, though they fall never so often, may possibly obtain indulgence:
but the teacher, should this happen to him, is deprived of all excuse, and
will suffer the most extreme vengeance. Thus, lest at the words, "When they
shall revile you, and persecute you, and say all manner of evil against you,"
they should be too timid to go forth: He tells them, "unless ye are prepared
to combat with all this, ye have been chosen in vain." For it is not evil
report that ye should fear, but lest ye should prove partners in
dissimulation.For then, "Ye will lose your savor, and be trodden under foot:"
but if ye continue sharply to brace them up, and then are evil spoken of,
rejoice; for this is the very use of salt, to sting the corrupt,and make
them smart. And so their censure follows of course, in no way harming you,
but rather testifying your firmness. But if through fear of it you give up
the earnestness that becomes you, ye will have to suffer much more grievously,
being both evil spoken of, and despised by all. For this is the meaning of
"trodden under foot."
11. After this He leads on to another, a higher image.
"Ye are the light of the world."
"Of the world" again; not of one nation, nor of twenty states,but of the
whole inhabited earth. And "a light" to the mind, far better than this sunbeam:
like as they were also a spiritual salt. And before they are salt, and now
light: to reach thee how great is the gain of these strictprecepts, and the
profit of that grave discipline: how it binds, and permits not to become
dissolute; and causes clear sight, leading men on to virtue.
"A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid, neither do men light a candle,
and put it under the bushel."
Again, by these words He trains them to strictness of life, teaching them
to be earnest in their endeavors, as set before the eyes of all men, and
contending in the midst of the amphitheatre of the world. For, "look not
to this," He saith, "that we are now sitting here, that we are in a small
portion of one corner. For ye shall be as conspicuous to all as a city set
on the ridge of a hill, as a candle in a house on the candlestick, giving
Where now are they who persevere in disbelieving the power of Christ? Let
them hear these things, and let them adore His might, amazed at the power
of the prophecy. For consider how great things he promised to them, who were
not known even in their own country: that earth and sea should know them,
and that they should by their fame reach to the limits of the inhabited world;
or rather, not by their fame, but by the working of the good they wrought.
For it was not fame that bearing them everywhere made them conspicuous, but
also the actual demonstration by their works. Since, as though they had wings,
more vehemently than the sunbeam did they overrun the whole earth, sowing
the light of godliness.
But here He seems to me to be also training them to boldness of speech. For
to say, "A city set on a hill cannot be hid," is to speak as declaring His
own powers. For as that city can by no means be hidden, so it was impossible
that what they preached should sink into silence and obscurity. Thus, since
He had spoken of persecutions and calumnies, of plots and wars, for fear
they might think that these would have power to stop their mouths; to encourage
them, He saith, that so far from being hid, it should over-shine the whole
world; and that on this very account they should be illustrious and renowned.
By this then He declares His own power. In what follows, He requires that
boldness of speech which was due on their part; thus saying,
"Neither do men light a candle and put it under the bushel, but on the
candlestick, and it giveth light unto all that are in the house. Let your
light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify
your Father which is in Heaven."
"For I," saith He, "it is true, have kindled the light, but its continuing
to burn, let that come of your diligence: not for your own sakes alone, but
also for their sake, who are to profit by these rays, and to be guided unto
the truth. Since the calumnies surely shall not be able to obscure your
brightness, if you be still living a strict life, and as becomes those who
are to convert the whole world. Show forth therefore a life worthy of His
grace; that even as it is everywhere preached, so this light may everywhere
accompany the same.
Next He sets before them another sort of gain, besides the salvation of mankind,
enough to make them strive earnestly, and to lead them unto all diligence.
As thus, "Ye shall not only," saith He, "amend the world, if ye live aright,
but ye will also give occasion that God shall be glorified; even as if ye
do the contrary, ye will both destroy men, and make God's name to be blasphemed."
And how, it may be asked, shall God be glorified through us, if at least
men are to speak evil of us? Nay, not all men, and even they themselves who
in envy do this, will in their conscience admire and approve you; even as
the outward flatterers of such as live in wickedness do in mind accuse them.
What then? Dost thou command us to live for display and vain glory? Far from
it; I say not this; for I did not say, "Give ye diligence to bring forward
your own good deeds," neither did I say, "Show them;" but "Let your light
shine." That is, "Let your virtue be great, and the fire abundant, and the
light unspeakable." For when virtue is so great, it cannot lie hid, though
its pursuer shade it over ten thousand fold. Present unto them an irreprehensible
life, and let them have no true occasion of evil speaking; and then, though
there be thousands of evil-speakers, no man shall be able to cast any shade
upon you. And well did He say, "your light," for nothing makes a man so
illustrious, how manifold soever his will to be concealed, as the manifestation
of virtue. For as if he were clad with the very sunbeam, so he shines, yet
brighter than it; not spending his rays on earth, but surmounting also Heaven
itself. Hence also He comforts them more abundantly. For, "What though the
slander pain you," saith He; "yet shall ye have many to honor God on your
account. And in both ways your recompence is gathering, as well because God
is glorified through you, as because ye are defamed for God's sake. Thus,
lest we should on purpose seek to be reproached, on hearing that there is
a reward for it: first, He hath not expressed that sentiment simply, but
with two limitations, namely, when what is said is false, and when it is
for God's sake: and next He signifies how not that only, but also good report,
hath its great profit, the glory of it passing on to God. And He holds out
to them those gracious hopes. "For," saith He, "the calumny of the wicked
avails not so much as to put all others in the dark, in respect of seeing
your light. For then only when you have "lost your savor" shall they tread
you under foot; but not when you are falsely accused, doing right. Yea, rather
then shall there be many admiring, not you only, but for your sake your Father
also." And He said not "God," but "your Father;" already sowing beforehand
the seeds of that noble birth, which was about to be bestowed upon them.
Moreover, indicating His parity in honor, as He said above. "Grieve not when
ye are evil spoken of, for it is enough for you that for my sake you are
thus spoken of;" so here He mentions the Father: every where manifesting
12. Since then we know the gain that arises from this earnestness, and the
danger of indolence (for if our Lord be blasphemed because of us, that were
far worse than our perdition), let us "give none offense, neither to the
Jews, nor to the Gentiles, nor to the Church of God."And while the life which
we present before them is brighter than the sun, yet if any one will speak
evil of us, let us not grieve at being defamed, but only if we be defamed
For, on the one hand, if we live in wickedness, though there be none to speak
ill of us, we shall be the most wretched of all men: on the other hand, if
we apply ourselves to virtue, though the whole world speak evil of us, at
that very time we shall be more enviable than any. And we shall draw on to
follow us all who choose to be saved, for not the calumny of the wicked,
but our good life, will draw their attention. For indeed no trumpet is so
clear as the proof that is given by our actions: neither is the light itself
so transparent as a pure life, though our calumniators be beyond number.
I say, if all the above-mentioned qualities be ours; if we be meek and lowly
and merciful; if we be pure, and peacemakers; if hearing reproach, we revile
not again, but rather rejoice; then shall we attract all that observe us
no less than the miracles do. And all will be kindly disposed towards us,
though one be a wild beast, a demon, or what you will.
Or if there should even be some who speak evil of thee, be not thou at all
troubled thereat, nor because they revile thee in public, regard it; but
search into their conscience, and thou shalt see them applauding and admiring
thee, and numbering up ten thousand praises.
See, for instance, how Nebuchadnezzar praises the children in the furnace;
yet surely he was an adversary and an enemy. But upon seeing them stand nobly,
he proclaims their triumph, and crowns them: and that for nought else, but
because they disobeyed him, and hearkened unto the law of God. For the devil,
when he sees himself effecting nothing, from that time departs, fearing lest
he should be the cause of our winning more crowns. And when he is gone, even
one who is abominable and depraved will recognize virtue, that mist being
withdrawn. Or if men still argue perversely, thou shalt have from God the
greater praise and admiration.
Grieve not now, I pray thee, neither despond; since the very apostles were
to some a "savor of death;"to others, a "savor of life." And if there be
nothing to lay hold of in thyself, thou art rid of all their charges; or
rather, thou art become the more blessed. Shine out therefore in thy life,
and take no account of them who speak evil of thee. For it cannot, it cannot
be, that one careful of virtue, should not have many enemies. However, this
is nothing to the virtuous man. For by such means his brightness will increase
the more abundantly.
Let us then, bearing these things in mind, look to one object only; how to
order our own life with strictness. For thus we shall also guide to the life
that is there, such as are now sitting in darkness. For such is the virtue
of that light, as not only to shine here, but also to conduct its followers
thither. For when men see us despising all things present, and preparing
ourselves for that which is to come, our actions will persuade them sooner
than any discourse. For who is there so senseless, that at sight of one,
who within a day or two was living in luxury and wealth, now stripping himself
of all, and putting on wings, and arrayed to meet both hunger and poverty,
and all hardship, and dangers, and blood, and slaughter, and everything that
is counted dreadful; will not from this sight derive a clear demonstration
of the things which are to come?
But if we entangle ourselves in things present, and plunge ourselves in them
more and more, how will it be possible for them to be persuaded that we are
hastening to another sojourn?
And what excuse after this shall we have, if the fear of God avail not so
much with us, I as human glory availed with the Greek philosophers? For some
of them did really both lay aside wealth, and despised death, that they might
make a show before men; wherefore also their hopes became vain. What plea
then shall deliver us, when with so great things set before us, and with
so high a rule of self-denial laid open to us, we are not able even to do
as they did, but ruin both ourselves and others besides? For neither is the
harm so great when a heathen commits transgression, as when a Christian doeth
the same. Of course not; for their character is already lost, but ours, by
reason of the grace of God, is even among the ungodly venerable and glorious.
Therefore when they would most revile us, and aggravate their evil speech,
they add some such taunt as, "Thou Christian:" a taunt which they would not
utter, did they not secretly entertain a great opinion of our doctrine.
Hast thou not heard how many, and how great precepts Christ enjoined? Now
when wilt thou be able to fulfill one of those commandments, while thou leavest
all, and goest about gathering interest, tacking together usuries, setting
on foot transactions of business, buying herds of slaves, procuring silver
vessels, purchasing houses, fields, goods without end? And I would this were
all. But when to these unseasonable pursuits, thou addest even injustice,
removing landmarks,taking away houses by violence, aggravating poverty,
increasing hunger, when wilt thou be able to set thy foot on these thresholds?
13. But sometimes thou showest mercy to the poor. I know it as well as thou.
But even in this again great is the mischief. For thou doest this either
in pride or in vainglory, so as not to profit even by thy good deeds. What
can be more wretched than this, to be making thy shipwreck in the very harbor?
To prevent this, when thou hast done any good action, seek not thanks from
me, that thou mayest have God thy debtor. For, "Lend," saith He, "unto them
from whom ye do not expect to receive."
Thou hast thy Debtor; why leave Him, and require it of me, a poor and wretched
mortal? What? is that Debtor displeased, when the debt is required of Him?
What? is He poor? Is He unwilling to pay? Seest thou not His unspeakable
treasures? Seest thou not His indescribable munificence? Lay hold then on
Him, and make thy demand; for He is pleased when one thus demands the debt
of Him. Because, if He see another required to pay for what He Himself owes,
He will feel as though He were insulted, and repay thee no more; nay, He
justly finds fault, saying, "Why, of what ingratitude hast thou convicted
me? what poverty dost thou know to be in me, that thou hastenest by me, and
resortest unto others? Hast thou lent to One, and dost thou demand the debt
For although man received it, it was God that commanded thee to bestow; and
His will is to be Himself, and in the original sense, debtor, and surety,
affording thee ten thousand occasion to demand the debt of Him from every
quarter. Do not thou then let go so great facility and abundance, and seek
to receive of me who have nothing. Why, to what end dost thou display to
me thy mercy shown to the poor. What! was it I that said to thee, Give? was
it from me that thou didst hear this; that thou shouldest demand it back
of me? He Himself hath said, "He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth to
God."Thou hast lent to God:put it to His account.
"But He doth not repay the whole now." Well, this too He doth for thy good.
For such a debtor is He: not as many, who are anxious simply to repay that
which is lent; whereas He manages and doeth all things, with a view of investing
likewise in security that which hath been given unto Him. Therefore some,
you see, He repays here: some He assignsin the other place.
14. Knowing therefore as we do these things, let us make our mercifulness
abundant, let us give proof of much love to man, both by the use of our money,
and by our actions. And if we see any one ill-treated and beaten in the
market-place, whether we can pay down money, let us do it: or whether by
words we may separate them, let us not be backward. For even a word has its
reward, and still more have sighs. And this the blessed Job said; "But I
wept for every helpless one, and I sighed when I saw a man in distress."But
if there be a reward for tears and sighs; when words also, and an anxious
endeavor, and many things besides are added, consider how great the recompence
becomes. Yea, for we too were enemies to God, and the Only-begotten reconciled
us, casting himself between, and for us receiving stripes, and for us enduring
Let us then likewise do our diligence to deliver from countless evils such
as are incurring them; and not as we now do, when we see any beating and
tearing one another: we are apt to stand by, finding pleasure in the disgrace
of others, and forming a devilish amphitheatre around: than which what can
be more cruel? Thou seest men reviled, tearing each other to pieces, rending
their clothes, smiting each other's faces, and dost thou endure to stand
What! is it a bear that is fighting? a wild beast? a serpent? It is a man,
one who hath in every respect fellowship with thee: a brother, a member.Look
not on, but separate them. Take no pleasure, but amend the evil. Stir not
up others to the shameful sight, but rather drive off and separate those
who are assembled. It is for shameless persons, and born slaves,to take pleasure
in' such calamities; for those that are mere refuse, for asses without reason.
Thou seest a man behaving himself unseemly, and dost thou not account the
unseemliness thine own? Dost thou not interpose, and scatter the devil's
troop, and put an end to men's miseries?
"That I may receive blows myself," saith one; "is this also thy bidding?"
Thou wilt not have to suffer even this; but if thou shouldest, the thing
would be to thee a sort of martyrdom; for thou didst suffer on God's behalf.
And if thou art slow to receive blows, consider that thy Lord was not slow
to endure the cross for thee.
Since they for their part are drunken in darkness; wrath being their tyrant
and commander; and they need some one who is sound to help them, both the
wrong-doer, and he who is injured; the one that he may be delivered from
suffering evil, the other that he may cease to do it. Draw nigh, therefore,
and stretch forth the hand, thou that art sober to him that is drunken. For
there is a drunkenness of wrath too, and that more grievous than the drunkenness
Seest thou not the seamen, how, when they see any meeting with shipwreck,
they spread their sails, and set out with all haste, to rescue those of the
same craft out of the waves? Now, if partakers in an art show so much care
one for another, how much more ought they who are partakers of the same nature
to do all these things! Because in truth here too is a shipwreck, a more
grievous one than that; for either a man under provocation blasphemes, and
so throws all away: or he forswears himself under the sway of his wrath,
and that way falls into hell: or he strikes a blow and commits murder, and
thus again suffers the very same shipwreck. Go thou then, and put a stop
to the evil; pull out them that are drowning, though thou descend into the
very depth of the surge; and having broken up the theatre of the devil, take
each one of them apart, and admonish him to quell the flame, and to lull
But if the burning pile wax greater, and the furnace more grievous, be not
thou terrified; for thou hast many to help thee, and stretch forth the hand,
if thou furnish but a beginning; and above all thou surely hast with thee
the God of peace. And if thou wilt first turn aside the flames, many others
also will follow, and of what they do well, thou wilt thyself receive the
Hear what precept Christ gave to the Jews, creeping as they did upon the
earth: "If thou see," saith He, "thine enemy's beast of burden falling down,
do not hasten by, but raise it."And thou must see that to separate and reconcile
men that are fighting is a much lighter thing than to lift up the fallen
beast. And if we ought to help in raising our enemies' ass, much more our
friends' souls: and most when the fall is more grievous; for not into mire
do these fall, but into the fire of hell, not bearing the burden of their
wrath. And thou, when thou seest thy brother lying under the load, and the
devil standing by, and kindling the pile, thou runnest by, cruelly and
unmercifully; a kind of thing not safe to do, even where brutes are concerned.
And whereas the Samaritan, seeing a wounded man, unknown, and not at all
appertaining to him, both staid, and set him on a beast, and brought him
home to the inn, and hired a physician, and gave some money, and promised
more: thou, seeing one fallen not among thieves, but amongst a band of demons,
and beset by anger; and this not in a wilderness, but in the midst of the
forum; not having to lay out money, nor to hire a beast, nor to bring him
on a long way, but only to say some words:--art thou slow to do it? and boldest
back, and hurriest by cruelly and unmercifully? And how thinkest thou, calling
upon God, ever to find Him propitious?
15. But let me speak also to you, who publicly disgrace yourselves: to him
who is acting despitefully, and doing wrong. Art thou inflicting blows? tell
me; and kicking, and biting? art thou become a wild boar, and a wild ass?
and art thou not ashamed? dost thou not blush at thus being changed into
a wild beast, and betraying thine own nobleness? For though thou be poor,
thou art free; though thou be a working man, thou art a Christian.
Nay, for this very reason, that thou art poor, thou shouldest be quiet. For
fightings belong to the rich, not to the poor; to the rich, who have many
causes to force them to war. But thou, not having the pleasure of wealth,
goest about gathering to thyself the evils of wealth, enmities, and strifes,
and fightings; and takest thy brother by the throat, and goest about to strangle
him, and throwest him down publicly in the sight of all men: and dost thou
not think that thou art thyself rather disgraced, imitating the violent passions
of the brutes; nay rather, becoming even worse than they? For they have all
things in common; they herd one with another, and go about together: but
we have nothing in common, but all in confusion: fightings, strifes, revilings,
and enmities, and insults. And we neither reverence the heaven, unto which
we are called all of us in common; nor the earth, which He hath left free
to us all in common; nor our very nature; but wrath and the love of money
sweeps all away.
Hast thou not seen him who owed the ten thousand talents, and then, after
he was forgiven that debt, took his fellow-servant by the throat for an hundred
pence, what great evils he underwent, and how he was delivered over to an
endless punishment? Hast thou not trembled at the example? Hast thou no fear,
lest thou too incur the same? For we likewise owe to our. Lord many and great
debts: nevertheless, He forbears, and suffers long, and neither urges us,
as we do our fellow-servants, nor chokes and takes us by the throat; yet
surely had he been minded to exact of us but the least part thereof, we had
long ago perished.
16. Let us then, beloved, bearing these things in mind, be humbled, and feel
thankful to those who are in debt to us. For they become to us, if we command
ourselves, an occasion of obtaining most abundant pardon; and giving a little,
we shall receive much. Why then exact with violence, it being meet, though
the other were minded to pay, for thee of thine accord to excuse him, that
thou mayest receive the whole of God? But now thou doest all things, and
art violent, and contentious, to have none of thy debts forgiven thee; and
whilst thou art thinking to do despite unto thy neighbor, thou art thrusting
the sword into thyself, so increasing thy punishment in hell: whereas if
thou wilt show a little self-command here, thou makest thine own accounts
easy. For indeed God therefore wills us to take the lead in that kind of
bounty, that He may take occasion to repay us with increase.
As many therefore as stand indebted to thee, either for money, or for trespasses,
let them all go free, and require of God the recompense of such thy magnanimity.
For so long as they continue indebted to thee, thou canst not have God thy
debtor. But if thou let them go free, thou wilt be able to detain thy God,
and to require of Him the recompense of so great self-restraint in bountiful
measure. For suppose a man had come up and seeing thee arresting thy debtor,
had called upon thee to let him go free, and transfer to himself thy account
with the other: he would not choose to be unfairafter such remission, seeing
he had passed the whole demand to himself: how then shall God fail to repay
us manifold, yea, ten thousand fold, when for His commandment's sake, if
any be indebted to us, we urge no complaint against them, great or small,
but let them go exempt from all liability? Let us not then think of the temporary
pleasure that springs up in us by exacting of our debtors, but of the loss,
rather, how great! which we shall thereby sustain hereafter, grievously injuring
ourselves in the things which are eternal. Rising accordingly above all,
let us forgive those who must give account to us, both their debts and their
offenses; that we may make our own accounts prove indulgent, and that what
we could not reach by all virtue besides, this we may obtain by not bearing
malice against our neighbors; and thus enjoy the eternal blessings, by the
grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory and
might now and always, even forever and ever. Amen.
Commentary on Matthew 6:22-23,
which sheds light on Luke 11:33-36
By St. Gregory Thaumaturgus
"The light of the
body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be
full of light. But it thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of
darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is
The single eye is the love unfeigned; for when the body is enlightened by
it, it sets forth through the medium of the outer members only things which
are perfectly correspondent with the inner thoughts. But the evil eye is
the pretended love, which is also called hypocrisy, by which the whole body
of the man is made darkness. We have to consider that deeds meet only for
darkness may be within the man, while through the outer members he may produce
words that seem to be of the light: for there are those who are in reality
wolves, though they may be covered with sheep's clothing. Such are they who
wash only the outside of the cup and platter, and do not understand that,
unless the inside of these things is cleansed, the outside itself cannot
be made pure. Wherefore, in manifest confutation of such persons, the Saviour
says: "If the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness!"
That is to say, if the love which seems to thee to be light is really a work
meet for darkness, by reason of some hypocrisy concealed in thee, what must
be thy patent transgressions!