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The origin of Islam is a continuing scholarly problem that unfortunately (perhaps for political reasons) does not receive as much attention as it should. Even among secular scholars who are inclined to critically question Christian tradition and the development of Canon, there is a tendency to ascribe the whole of Islam to the person of Muhammad and accept the Qu'ran as fundamentally unchanged from the lips of the man, leaving little to development, compilation, or interpretation.

I'm not very familiar with the issue, but if I recall correctly, certain accounts in the Qu'ran and the ahadith do not match the Scripture of the Jews and Christians, yet do curiously reflect extra-Biblical Jewish oral tradition. One such story is the young Abraham smashing his father's idols, found in the Midrash. This suggests a degree of familiarity, at least on the part of Muhammad, with Jewish tradition. Some scholars (notably Patricia Crone) have picked up on this, along with contemporary non-Islamic documents, and suggest that politically disaffected Jews may have contributed significantly to the social movement that went on to become Islam. There may also be a Gnostic element; Islam, taking almost exactly after certain early heresies, teaches that the Passion of Our Lord was illusory, or some other fellow was substituted in Christ's stead.
If you look at a map, it isn't hard to see that the areas of Germany outside of the Ancient Roman Empire went 90% Protestant, while areas within the Roman Oribit stayed 90% Catholic during the so-called Reformation, which was nothing more than a German political revolt against Roman authority. For most German princes, the religious aspects, indulgences etc., were merely a pretext. In their eyes, Ancient Rome had tried and failed to conquer them, but the Catholic Church had succeeded and needed to be removed.  The Pope was seen as an international figure outside of any particular loyalty save for that of Rome and thus hostile to German "freedoms." Even if you lived in a German-Catholic area like Austria or Bavaria, if you showed too much loyalty to Rome you recieved the derisive title "ultra-montagne," meaing your loyalty was over the mountains (the Alps), in other words, Rome..

Being organized along national lines and subordinated to the state, Orthodox countries did not face the same obstacles. Rebelling against an Orthodox Patriarch would be seen as high treason in addition to being heretical. If you add to this that the printing press was created in Germany and not Russia and that Russia and its buffer states were pretty isolated culturally from W. Europe, it's not that hard to understand why an Orthodox split didn't take place.

I think there are some other good points here too. That was very interesting about the comparability of Islam to Protestantism.
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