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Calendar (1795/12/22)
1795 Dec. 22
Penalver y Cardenas, Luis, Bishop of
Louisiana

General proceedings of the visit of the diocese of Louisiana and in particular of New Orleans by Don Luis Penalver y Cardenas, its first Bishop, and the Notary Dr. Jose Maria de Rivas, his private and official secretary.

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1795 Jul. 29

Penalver y Cardenas, Luis Bishop
(New Orleans)

1. The Bishop declares: a) That he took possession of his Episcopal see on July 24, and immediately turned his eyes upon his numerous flock scattered over extensive lands and greatly in need of spiritual aid on account of the difference of temper, character, and customs, as it is explained in the royal mandate issued from Aranjuez on Jan. 24 of this same year.
2. Therefore the Bishop commands: a) That on the same day there be published, "inter missarum solemnia," the general edict which contains the articles that are to be treated of at the Visit and that all the people in this city, without exception, be convoked to meet in the Cathedral at 7 o'clock in the morning, in order that they may comply, according to their knowledge and conscience, with the articles of the edict. b) That in order that no one may allege ignorance, this Act shall be published tomorrow in their own church during the Mass by the present secretary, whom the Bishop made the Notary of his visit. Signed by Luis Bishop of Louisiana and certified by Dr. J. M. de Rivas. To this is added a note by Rivas on July 30, 1795, certifying that he read and published in the Cathedral church the act that precedes. To this is added a decree by the Bishop on July 31, 1795, ordering that the edict of which the preceding act makes mention be read in the said church after the Gospel of the Mass which the Bishop will celebrate on Aug. 2, and be affixed to the doors of the church mentioned so that all may be better informed as to its tenor. Signed by the Bishop and certified by Rivas.

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1795 Jul. 30

Penalver y Cardenas, Luis Bishop
(New Orleans)

I. The Bishop states that the Holy Councils have decreed that Prelates should be obliged, once a year or oftener if necessary, to make a general visit of their flock, ecclesiastics and seculars, in the churches, hospitals, confraternities, and other pious places. Accordingly, the Bishop commands that all of those who know or have heard any of the particulars that shall hereinafter be mentioned, shall come and declare, namely:
1. Whether the person in whose in whose charge have been the ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and the ministers of the court, have acted with justice, have been remiss in correcting public transgressions and in applying the penalties and condemnations pronounced by the former ordinary, and have carried out the last wills and testaments.
2. Whether they have been extortionate, taken bribes, made excessive claims, or any claims on the poor, putting them in prison when they were insolvent.
3. Whether those that had the care of the souls, or their substitutes, administer punctually the holy sacraments, if any one died without confession, communion, or extreme unction through their faults, anyone without baptism.
4. Whether they treat their parishioners with charity, give them good example, take excessive fees for ecclesiastical functions. If they visit the dying to prepare them, by the administration of the sacraments, for a happy passage into eternity.
5. Whether they perform the ecclesiastical functions, frequent the confessional and the pulpit, teach the Christian Doctrine to the people at least on Sundays, and in Advent and Lent.
6. Whether the person in whose charge is the greater sacristy (sacristia Major, the sexton) or the performance of the functions that are proper and peculiar thereto, assists at the parish and at the administration of the sacraments, allows Masses to be said by priests without their licenses. If he does not take care of the respect due to the temple, to the cleanliness of the altars and of the sacred vessels and ornaments.
7. Whether he allows them to be turned to profane uses, lend them. Whether he is properly zealous in regard to the doors of the church and the bells, opening the former only by day and ringing the latter with moderation, and if through his negligence any objects of value have been stolen or any profanation committed, and if the light is always kept burning before the Blessed Sacrament.
8. Whether they know that any of the ecclesiastics referred to or any others whatsoever lead immoral lives, cause troubles between married people, encourage divorces, cause other scandals and disturbances.
9. Whether they appear dressed conformably to their state, or hide their character and profession, wear secular clothes, carry offensive or defensive weapons, dance, escort women by day or by night, or take them out riding.
10. Whether they carry on business personally or through a third person, take money on interest, keep a gambling house, enter public houses of this character, or are partners in them, perform the duties of steward or overseer, or any mechanical occupation unbecoming their state.
11. Whether they say the Masses with which they are charged, receive merchandize in return for them, give receipts secretly, celebrate on portable altars, or in their oratories without license, on Easter or other days not permitted.
12. Whether they have admitted to the sacred mysteries heretics, infidels, or such as are publicly excommunicated, thus defiling the holy temple of the Lord.
13. Whether they obtained their orders or ministry by simoniacal compacts and when suspended or excommunicated, or being irregular have celebrated the divine offices, witnessed clandestine marriages prohibited by the law, or been witnesses in important criminal or civil cases wherein they are forbidden to appear.
14. Whether any seculars whatsoever publicly live in the state of sin, cause trouble between husband and wife; whether married couples do not live together; whether they lead their children into sin by allowing improper meetings between them and their acquaintances and slaves, especially with women that are married, relatives, or of a different faith.
15. Whether there are public or disguised usurers and extortioners, who sell dearer because on credit, lend money on objects, receiving or renting out more than the quantity collected, sell with the condition by which the vender obliges himself to preserve the object which is to be redeemed, put out money on interest securing the principal, or if they make other contracts condemned by the canons and the laws.
16. Whether there are relapsed heretics, who, after having abjured their errors, or whether any of those that are separated from the Church, make public profession and use of their errors, meeting in conventicles.
17. Whether there are sorcerers, or superstitious persons, who enter into explicit or implicit compacts, blasphemers of the name of God, His Most Holy Mother and His Saints.
18. Whether the executors have not carried out the last wills, particularly in regard to Masses and pious works.
19. Whether any that are married elsewhere reside a long time in this city or its neighborhood, or whether those that live with their wives do not well educate their children, have relatives entering into marriage without dispensation, or without the presence of their pastor and of witnesses.
20. Whether physicians. contrary to the dispositions of the Councils and to the Apostolical Decree do not warn the sick of their danger that they may dispose themselves to receive the Holy Sacraments, or if after the third day of the fever the patient not being willing to do it, they continue to visit and prescribe for him.
21. Whether any fathers of families, owners of slave, teachers of children, do not teach them the rudiments of faith, or do it from catechisms not approved, and give them profane books to read that corrupt their innocence.
22. Whether there are any indecencies of men and women in the church, if they profane it with immodest dress, feasts, indecent plays, if they violate its local immunity and the persons of the minister.
23. Finally, whether the precept of annual confession and communion is observed, if Mass is heard on feast days, if the fast is kept in lent, the ember days, and the vigils, if the abstinence from flesh-meat is observed on Fridays, with all else that may give scandal or be contrary to religion and good morals.

II. Accordingly, the Bishop commands:
1. That within eight days after the publication of the edict all should appear and declare what they know.
2. That within thirty days they must present to the visitor the testaments that have not been executed, and the pious works with their accounts and vouchers, since the last one approved, the terms made use of (in this document) being understood as being pre-emptory, and that in case of malice or omission the Bishop will proceed as in case of rebellion to put into effect this mandate with those means of compulsion that are in the competency of the summary and privileged judgment of the Visit.
3. That in order that it may reach the knowledge of all, the Bishop issues the present document, which shall be read on Sunday, the 2nd of August next, in the cathedral church after the Gospel of the Mass, which the Bishop will say, a true copy being left affixed to the doors. Signed by the Bishop of Louisiana and certified by Rivas. (Printed in the American Catholic Historical researches, pp. 97-102, vo. 15, 1898. The original is illegible). To this is added a note by Rivas on Aug. 2, 1795 certifying that "from the place where the Gospel is sung in the holy cathedral church of this city, (he) read in a loud and intelligible voice after the Gospel had been said in the Mass which the Most Illustrious Lord Bishop celebrated, the Edict as to Public Sins foregoing," (according to the English translation of Rivas' note attached to the original document and signed by the same). To this is added a decree by Bishop Penalver, dated Aug. 2, 1795 (illegible). It is signed by Bishop Penalver and witnessed by Rivas.

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1795 Aug. 2

Penalver y Cardenas, Luis Bishop
(New Orleans)

The Bishop orders the visit of the cemetery of this town which is situated without the walls to begin this afternoon. Signed by the Bishop and witnessed by Rivas. To this is added a note by Rivas, dated as above, certifying that Bishop Penalver and he passed the cemetery that is contiguous to the Hospital of Charity, although without the walls. Signed by the Bishop and certified by Rivas.

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1795 Aug. 2

Penalver y Cardenas, Luis Bishop
(New Orleans)

The Bishop decrees: a) That Father Joaquin de Portillo of the parish of St. Louis should present the books of baptisms, of matrimonies and of burials. b) That Father Patrick Walsh should suspend the exercise of the vicarship that has been under his charge during this judgment of visit, and that Estevan de Quinones, notary of that tribunal, should present any process which is pending. Signed by the Bishop and witnessed by Rivas. To this is added a note by Saldivar certifying that, on the same day, he notified Father Joaquin Portillo, pastor of St. Louis, of the above decree. To this is added another note by Saldivar certifying that on the same day he notified father Patrick Walsh of the above decree. Another note by Saldivar certifying that, on the same day, he notified Estevan de Quinones of the above decree.

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1795 Aug. 5

Penalver y Cardenas, Luis Bishop
(New Orleans)

The Bishop decrees: a) That the books that have been presented should be handed back to the parish with the judicial decrees added to them. b) That the present notary should certify the number of Baptisms, of matrimonies and of burials since the last visit and also the number of those who have died without sacraments. c) That Father Joaquin Portillo should prepare the furniture and ornaments of the parish for inventory. Signed by the Bishop and witnessed by rivas.
---To this is added a note by Saldivar certifying that on Aug. 5, 1795, he notified Father Joaquin Portillo of the above decree.

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1795 Aug. 5

Rivas, Joseph Maria de, secretary
(New Orleans)

Rivas certifies: That from the parochial books presented by Father Joaquin de Portillo, pastor of the parish of St. Louis, today Cathedral church, since March 2, 1793, date in which the last visit was brought to a close until the 2nd instant, there appears: a) That, among white people, 394 persons have been baptized, including minors and adults; 85 marriages; and 308 deceased have been buried, out of which 91 died without sacraments. c) That the reason why there were deaths without sacraments is that some died suddenly and others did not notify from their houses the fact of being sick that spiritual help might be sent to them. Signed by Dr. Joseph Maria de Rivas.

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1785 Aug. 6

Portillo, Father Joaquin de, Spanish Capuchin
(New Orleans)

Father Portillo drew up an inventory of the furniture, ornaments and cloth of the sacristy of the Cathedral and parochial church of St. Louis listing them under the following headings: 1. Altars; 2. Consecrated Stones; 3. Reliquaries and Branchs; 4. Images; 5. Candlesticks; 6. Stands for the Missals; 7. Books; 8. Basins; 9. ??; 10. Confessionals; 11. Bells and handbells; 12. Pews and chairs; 13. Monument and its urn; 14. Girandole (Tenebrario) and candlestick for the Paschal Candle; 15. Pall and standards; 16. The chair of the Bishop; 17. Cloths to cover the altars; 18. Cloths for funerals; 19. Floor-carpets; 20. Iron tools for making hosts; 21. Miscellaneous things; 22 Silver; 23 Ornaments; 24. Humeral veils; 25. Cassocks and birettas; 26. Albs; 27. Amices; 28. Altar cloths; 29. Palls; 30. Purificators; 31. Covers for the paten (palias); 32. Finger towels; 33. Communion cloths; 34. Surplices; 35. Hand-towels; 36. Cloths for vestments; 37. To this inventory Father Portillo adds a note of things which he ordered to be repaired. Signed by Father Joaquin de Portillo.
---To this is added a decree by the Bishop dated Aug. 6, 1795, that the inventory has been examined and should be included among the proceedings of the present visit. Signed by the Bishop and witnessed by Rivas.
---To this is added another decree by Bishop Penalver, dated Aug. 7, 1795, ordering that Father Patrick Walsh to present a report of the secular and religious priests in this town; they must be notified to appear and present their licenses on the next day. Signed by Bishop Penalver and witnessed by Rivas.
---To this is added a note by the Notary Saldivar, dated as above, certifying that he notified Father Patrick Walsh of the above decree. Then Father Walsh presented the following report of the secular and religious priests: a) Father Joaquin de Portillo, pastor, Father Luis de Quintanilla, Father Firso Peleagonzalo, and Father Estevan de Valorio, substitutes of the pastor, the first of them is also chaplain of the Ursulines; Father Antonio de Sedella who has just arrived from Havana. All these five are Capuchins. b) Father Ramon Palao, chaplain of the hospital of charity, a secular priest; Father Ubaldo Delgado, religious, a teacher of primary school; Father Agustin de Lamare, chaplain of the first battalion of the fixed Regiment of Louisiana; two chaplains of the Regiment of Mexico whose names Father Walsh does not know; one of them has remained because of sickness and is about to go to Havana; the other one will do the same after his battalion gets back; two priests who came with Bishop Penalver: D.D. Jose Maria de Rivas as secretary and D. Isidro Quintero as chaplain, and the author of the present note who is in charge of the chaplaincy of the Royal Hospital. Signed by Patricio Walsh and witnessed by Saldivar.
---To this is added a note by Saldivar certifying that on the same day he notified Father Joaquin de Portillo of the above decree. Another note by the same that he notified Father Antonio de Sedella. Another note by the same that he notified Father Ubaldo Delgado. Another note by the same that he notified D. Ramon Palao. Another note by the same that he notified D. Isidro Quintero. Another note by the same that he notified Father Luis de Quintanilla. Another note by the same that he notified Father Firso Peleagonzalo. Another note by the same that he notified Father Estevan de Valoria. Another note by the same that he notified Father Agustin Lamare.

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1795 Aug. 10

Rivas, Dr. Joseph Maria de
(New Orleans)

Rivas certifies:
1. That the above mentioned priests appeared before Bishop Penalver y Cardenas with exception of Fathers Firso Peleagonzalo and Agustin Lamare because of illness.
2. That the Bishop by questioning them observed their competence for the exercise of their duties.
3. That their licenses should be returned to Father Patrick Walsh.
4. That the Bishop expects to do the same concerning Fathers Peleagonzalo and Lamare as soon as they are able to present themselves. Signed by the Bishop and witnessed by Rivas.

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1795 Aug. 11

Penalver y Cardenas, Luis Bishop
(New Orleans)

Bishop Penalver decrees:
1. That some witnesses of good name should appear to testify about some particulars referred to by the General Edict.
2. That this is to be carried in the ordinary way but with the greatest reserve, because the Bishop wants to know the subjects that may require reform.
3. That the Bishop will carry it out as far as he can, notifying His Majesty of all that may demand his intervention.
4. That Father Patrick Walsh, Vicar of these Provinces, and Father Joaquin Portillo, Pastor of this town, are included among the visited persons, and they should appear in the first place. Signed by the Bishop and witnessed by Rivas.
---To this is added a note by Saldivar certifying that, on the same day, he notified Patrick Walsh of the above decree.
---To this is added another note by Saldivar that, on the same day, he notified Father Joaquin Portillo of the above decree.

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1795 Aug. 12

Rivas, Dr. Joseph Maria de
(New Orleans)

Rivas certifies:
That Father Patrick Walsh appeared before Bishop Penalver y Cardenas, and, under oath, answered the questions asked as follows:
1. That no parishioner has died without sacraments. When that happened the fault is to be imputed to the masters (amos) who have not called the priests in due time.
2. That the priests treat the parishioners charitably, and do not charge excessive stipends. He does not know whether they assist the moribunds in the last agony.(?)
3. That they are frequently in the confessional and in the pulpit, teach the doctrine to the parishioners, and fulfil the ecclesiastical functions; Father Joaquin Portillo preaches every holy day after the Gospel, and six times a week, in the afternoon, during Lent, and also on some mornings teaches catechism.
4. That the pastor is in charge of the service of the main sacristy. The celebration of the Mass is allowed only to those who have a license.
5. That there is always a light before the tabernacle; the doors remain open only during the day; the bells are in perfect order; no ornaments have been stolen.
6. That Father Patrick Walsh does not know anything against the good behavior of the seven priests who live in this town.
7. That they do not wear profane clothes, or weapons; do not go to balls or go riding with women on horseback.
8. That they do not engage in business nor go gambling nor are leaders of societies.
9. That they do not say Mass for merchandise or on portable altars, in oratories without license, nor in forbidden places.
10. That they have not admitted to the mysteries heretics, excommunicates or infidels.
11. That no ecclesiastics have obtained their orders by means of simony, being already excommunicated, or, being suspended, have assisted at clandestine marriages, or have been witnesses in forbidden causes.
12. That there are very many secular persons of various conditions or sex, in public sin, living in concubinage in their houses.
13. That it is impossible to number how many. The proof of the great number is the little frequenting of the sacraments, and the very few that fulfill the annual obligations toward the Church.
14. That Mr. Marioni Caballero lives separately from his wife by mutual consent, and there are many other cases like this.
15. That Father Patrick Walsh has no knowledge of disturbers of marriage, parents who induce their sons to have obscene relations with slaves, married women, relatives or even of a diverse religion.
16. That he has no knowledge of persons who carry on negotiations forbidden by the Laws and the Canons.
17. That he does not know of any relapsed heretics who, after having abjured their errors, return to them. There are, however, some of different creeds who are tolerated by the government.
18. That he does not know that any of these exercise publicly their errors, or have their juntas. However, he has heard of a junta of free masons, but he does not know whether it is true or not.
19. That he has no knowledge of any wizards, superstitious people and blasphemers.
20. That he has no knowledge that the testamentary executors do not fulfill the last wills.
21. That he has no knowledge of husbands who live separately from their wives in this town or in its outskirts, except Farneret who has a pending case for divorce.
22. a) That there are some married people who do not give a true Christian education to their children; b) that Father Walsh does not know of incestuous or clandestine marriages; c) that in the Royal Hospital the doctors warn the sick, when it is necessary, of the danger of their condition that they may receive the sacraments. However, they do not do that in other places. Once in a while it happens that a doctor notifies the relatives so that, they in turn notify the sick person.
23. That, among the Spanish, the parents, masters and teachers teach the Christian doctrine in approved catechism to the children and the slaves. That the Spanish schools are directed by father Ubaldo Delgado. Father Walsh does not know whether they proceed likewise in the French schools.
24. That there are no indecencies in the church; it is not profaned with turpitudes, and that the person of the ministers is not offended.
25. That few fulfill the annual obligation of confession and communion. The Pastors may give information on this point.
26. That very many out of neglect do not attend Mass on holy days.
27. That there are some who do not attend Mass out of habit, but Father Walsh does not know their names.
28. That there are very few who fast on the days of obligation.
29. That people work during holy days, buy and sell publicly under pretext of the need caused by the two last fires, and hurricanes. At the beginning they had license for doing so because of a fair reason, but now they act without it.
30. That the Pastor has always warned the people against all the above mentioned faults. So did Father Walsh as Vicar.
31. That he did not notify directly the Bishop of Havana of these disorders. However, the Bishop knew that and his instructions aimed to suppress these irregularities.
Signed by the Bishop of Louisiana, Father Patricio Walsh, and witnessed by Rivas.

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1795 Aug. 12

Rivas, Dr. Joseph Maria de
(New Orleans)

Rivas certifies: That Father Joaquin Portillo appeared before Bishop Penalver y Cardenas, and, under oath, answered the questions asked as follows:
1. That the person in charge of the ecclesiastical jurisdiction and the ministers of the court have proceeded with justice, although the Vicar had to intervene in some cases concerning the Religious. Portillo refers to the proceedings then carried out.
2. That he does not believe nor has heard that any priest of this town lives dishonestly, maintains suspicious women, disturb marriages, advise abortions or other scandals.
3. That the priests do not wear worldly clothes, weapons, etc.; they do not go to balls, accompany women, nor ride with them on horseback.
4. That they do not engage in business, are not gamblers, leaders in societies, or exercise other mechanical functions.
5. That they do not give confidential receipts of Mass or for merchandises; do not say Mass on portable altars, non-approved oratories, and on forbidden days.
6. That there are heretics, Jews, Indians, infidels and public excommunicated persons, and might be admitted to the holy mysteries by the fact that they are unknown.
7. That he does not know that priests have assisted clandestine matrimonies, or have been witnesses in forbidden cases.
8. That more than half of the people lives in public sin. They are not ashamed of their lives. Father Portillo has often preached that they live worse than the pagans. That among the white women there is honesty but that among the half-breed of both sexes the corruption is very great. There are also cases of separated married people. For instance, Pedro Marin lives separately from his wife by mutual consent.
9. That Father Portillo has heard that there are parents who, as soon as their sons get to the age of puberty, give them a Negrfo woman or a Mulatto girl, and that, as to the slaves, in very few houses there is no concubinage. They do not get married and the offspring is very numerous.
10. That there are many adulteries and intermingling with persons of diverse religions.
11. That Father Portillo has heard of two or three persons who lend money on interest, but that he does not know whether the other contracts forbidden by the Laws and Canons are practised. This is due to the fact that they do not confess nor consult about questions of conscience.
12. That there are no relapsed heretics, but many of tolerated sects do not practice their errors with exception of some houses of Freemasons. The Treasurer of the army, D. Gilbert Levnar, Mr. Regio his brother-in-law, a Knight of St. Louis of French nationality whose name Father Portillo does not remember, belong to this society. Mr. Seguiu if the Venerable of one of the groups, and Mr. Lafon is the Venerable of one of the brotherhoods. In the latter's house the meetings used to take place.
13. That there are no wizards, superstitions, blasphemers who suppose implicit or explicit pacts, with the devil although once in a while some persons of low class or Negroes may enter mair(?) in some superstition.
14. That he does not know whether the testamentary executors fulfill the pious legacies because very few are those who make last will. Father Portillo knows only of two little alms, one to the Church and another to the hospital.
15. That D. Antonio Argote has his wife in Spain, and there are Royal orders that he should return. Likewise D. Ambrosio Liebana, and a fat Catalonian whose name Father Portillo does not remember, have their wives far away.
16. That the parents educate their children very poorly.
17. That he does know whether relatives get married without pastors or witnesses because, living in public concubinage, they do not need such a ceremony.
18. That the physicians do not warn the sick of the danger of their condition in order that they may prepare to die.
19. That neither the parents nor the masters (of slaves) teach the Christian doctrine by approved catechisms. Among the white people, the parents look for the person capable of teaching the children for the first communion which takes place between fifteen and twenty years. Among the Negroes, very seldom is there one who confesses or takes communion. In the school in charge of Father Ubaldo Delgado, the instruction is given by the catechism of Ripalda.
20. That, besides Father Delgado's, there are the school of Mr. Codin (Coclin?) and that of Lartigo, another one whose name Father Portillo does not remember, and two others for colored people. Father Portillo does not know the way they work except those of Father Ubaldo Delgado and Mr. Coclen that meet regularly.
21. That the behavior of believers in church is insolent. Father Portillo has condemned that in his sermons as well as in particular cases.
22. That he does not know how the annual obligation of confession is fulfilled because he has never drawn up a census. That since the second week of Lent until the "Corpus Christi" of this year only four hundred and six persons (406) took communion. Thus Father Portillo prudentially considers that, with the exception of some pious souls who take communion often, only three hundred and twenty persons (320) have fulfilled the annual obligations towards the Church.
23. That during holydays only a third part of people attends Mass, and in ordinary days less than the fifth part.
24. That in very few houses is fulfilled the precept of fast during Lent, Ember week, Vigils, and Good Friday.
25. That people work, drink, and dance during the holydays. All this Father Portillo has condemned but he has not noticed any emendation. Signed by the Bishop, Father Joaquin de Portillo and witnessed by Rivas.

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1795 Aug. 13

Rivas, Dr. Joseph Maria de
(New Orleans)

Rivas certifies: That D. Jaspar de Aranda, a native of Villalpando, Kingdom of Leon, appeared before Bishop Penalver y Cardenas and answered the questions asked as follows:
1. That he does not know whether the Vicar Patricio Walsh, the pastor Joaquin de Portillo, his substitutes and other ecclesiastics have failed in any of the points listed from no. 1 to no. 13, inclusive, in the General Edict of the present Visit. He does not have anything to state against them.
2. That most of the lay people live in public concubinage; that among the Negroes he could say that all do so; that they allow their sons to do the same. Decency is found only among the white women.
3. That there are some lenders at interest. He does not know about other contracts.
4. That, although there are many protestants, he does not know of any who, after having abjured their errors, have returned to them; that meetings of Freemasons were held at Mr. Lafon's. A man named Seguiu was the main brother.
5. That he does not know whether there are wizards, superstitions and blasphemers against God.
6. That he does not know whether the testamentary executors fulfill the pious legacies, or Masses.
7. That, among the married people who live away from their wives, he knows only Don Antonio Argote and Don Ambrosio Liebana.
8. That he does not know whether there are clandestine marriages or marriages with relatives without dispensation.
9. That, among the physicians, one is protestant and he does not know whether the others warn the sick of their condition. Accordingly, many die without receiving the sacraments.
10. That Father Ubaldo Delgado teaches in his school the Christian Doctrine by approved catechisms. Very seldom do the parents teach the children in the same way and he does not know of any master who does that among his slaves. There is also the French school directed by Coden (Coclen?) who is a man of good reputation.
11. That very few go to church; that among the people some are led by mere curiosity because they do not look even at the altar. He has not seen any indecency but only some women with plumages and small veils on their heads.
12. That he does not know whether they profane the local or personal immunity.
13. That very few men fulfill the annual obligation of confession and communion, and some among the women do so. Some of the men say that it is not customary, others that it is an absurdity to reveal their own faults.
14. That very few attend Mass during holydays and much less during ordinary days.
15. That very few persons fast during Ember Week, Vigils, Lent and Fridays.
16. That they do not sanctify the Holydays but work as in ordinary days, with the exception of a few who go to church or such as may have some Christian exercise at home. This document is signed by the Bishop Penalver y Cardenas, Jaspar Aranda, and witnessed by Rivas. Immediately d. Jose Ocon, native of Saragoza, appeared before Bishop Penalver y Cardenas and gave sworn testimony to the same points witnessed by Jaspar Aranda. Signed by Bishop Penalver y Cardenas, Jose Ocon and witnessed by Rivas. On Aug. 14, 1795, the ensign of frigate, Jose de Hevia appeared before the Bishop and gave sworn testimony to the same points witnessed by Jaspar Aranda. Signed by Bishop Penalver y Cardenas, Josef Hevia and witnessed by Rivas. Immediately D. Antonio Morales, treasurer of the General Administration of Rents of New Orleans, appeared before Bishop Penalver y Cardenas, and gave sworn testimony to the points witnessed above. This is signed by Bishop Penalver, Antonio Morales and witnessed by Rivas. On Aug. 17, 1795, D. Diego Berez Pardo, Chaplain of the first battalion of the Regiment of Mexico who has been living for fifteen months in New Orleans, appeared before Bishop Penalver y Cardenas, and gave sworn testimony to the points witnessed above. This is signed by Bishop Penalver, Father Diego Berez Pardo, and witnessed by Rivas. On Aug. 18, 1795, D. Francisco Ramon Canet appeared before Bishop Penalver y Cardenas, and gave sworn testimony to the points witnessed above. This is signed by Bishop Penalver, Francisco Ramoncanes and witnessed by Rivas. To this is added a decree by Bishop Penalver y Cardenas, dated Aug. 19, 1795, ordering that Father Agustin Lamare, Chaplain of the Regiment of Louisiana, and Father Ubaldo Delgado, teacher of primary schools, should appear to be asked about matters concerning their ministries. Signed by the Bishop. To this is added a note by Rivas, dated as above, certifying that he notified Father Agustin Lamare of the above decree, who stated that he would do so as soon as the disease he now suffers would permit.

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1795 Sep. 1

Rivas, Dr. Joseph Maria de
(New Orleans)

Rivas certifies: That Father Agustin Lemare appeared before the Bishop and, under oath, answered the questions asked as follows:
1. That he has been chaplain of the second battalion of the Regiment of Louisiana for a year and eight months; that he serves also the same in absence of Father Manuel Garcia of his order; that he administers also a company of artillery.
2. That his administration is that of pastor. He says Mass during the Holydays in a chapel of the quarters, confesses the soldiers in fulfillment of the annual obligation, buries the corpses, and preaches the word of God to the soldiers.
3. That, during the first year, he had received a list of those in the regiment who had fulfilled the annual obligation towards the Church. But in the present year he did not receive it. However, he can say that every year, among five hundred or six hundred men, only twenty- five or thirty fulfill the annual obligation.
4. That he explains to the soldiers the doctrine of the Church eight days during Lent to dispose them to the annual obligation.
5. That, among officers and soldiers, only twenty-five of thirty have confessed and received communion during the two years he has been serving in the Regiment. Furthermore, Father Agustin Lamare assures that what he said is the truth. This document is signed by Father Agustin Lamare, the Bishop and witnessed by Rivas. To this is added a note by Rivas certifying that by the Edict of Aug. 7 published in this Cathedral Church, by the Bishop, the instructions which must precede and follow the sacrament of Confirmation, were announced. To this another note is added by Rivas certifying that by the Edict of Aug. 26, it was ordered that the three public offices of this town should certify the testaments executed since Jan. 1790, with the donations of Masses and the pious legacies left, so that the fulfillment of unfulfilled legacies can be demanded. To this is added another note by Rivas certifying that by the document of the first of September (today), circular orders were ordered to be sent to all the Pastors of the Diocese that they must draw up a census of their parishes with all the details. This is to be done every year. To this is added another note by Saldivar certifying that, on Sep. 1, 1795, he notified Father Ubaldo Delgado of the above decree of Aug. 19.

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1795 Sep. 3

Rivas, Dr. Joseph Maria de
(New Orleans)

Rivas certifies: That Father Ubldo Delgado appeared before Bishop Penalver y Cardenas, and, answered the questions asked as follows:
1. That he is teacher of the Spanish primary school.
2. That his assistant is D. Fernando Ibañez. They teach in the same house. During Summer, the school starts in the morning at seven o'clock and ends at eleven; in the afternoon it starts at three and ends at five-thirty. During Winter, it starts at eight o'clock and ends at eleven-thirty in the morning; in the afternoon from two-thirty to five o'clock. All those who go to school are white and they number a little more than one hundred. Father Ubaldo Delgado teaches the Christian doctrine by the catechism of Ripalda everyday; he teaches also how to read, to write and to count. Saturdays are dedicated to the teaching of the mysteries and to the worship of the Most Holy Virgin; on Sundays, in the afternoon, the catechism is explained, and, during Lent, even on working days. The parents maintain the children at school until they learn how to read, to write and to count, that is to say, until they are eight, nine or ten years old. Thus they remain at school during a year, a year and a half or two years.
3. That the French language is not taught although there are several French students. The only language employed is Spanish.
4. That Father Ubaldo Delgado knows of three French schools for white people; the one under the charge of Mr. Coden; another of Mr. Lartir, and the third one he does not remember. In these schools the youth is taught how to read, to write and to count; the Christian doctrine is taught by the catechism of Avignon. Besides these, there is another school for Negroes and Half-breeds directed by Mr. Brichel. The method is the same as that of the other schools.
5. That the founding of the schools is allowed by the government. Father Ubaldo Delgado assures that what he said is the truth. This document is signed by the Bishop, Father Ubaldo Delgado and witnessed by Rivas. To this is added a note by Rivas, dated on Sept. 19, 1795, certifying that by the document of Sept. 10, 1795, the visit of the Royal Hospital of charity whose patron is D. Andres Almonaster y Roxas, was begun. Even though the latter showed a Royal letters patent, dated Aug. 14, 1794, that exempts him from giving account of his administration, he offered of his own will to submit to the examination. The "ocular" of the Hospital was also visited in the procedures of Sept. 14 and 18.

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1795 Oct. 13

Penalver y Cardenas, Luis Bishop
(New Orleans)

a) The Bishop states: That, examining the books of burial, he noticed the great number of those who die without the sacraments. This is due only to the neglect of the physicians and surgeons who do not fulfill the Canonical regulations which order them to warn the sick when it is necessary.
b) Accordingly, the Bishop states the obligation they have of so doing, and the censure imposed by law to those who fail to do so. The document is signed by the Bishop and witnessed by Rivas. To this is added a note by Rivas, dated Oct. 19, 1795, certifying that the doctors have been notified personally on Oct. 15, 16, 17, of the above decree.

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1795 Oct. 20

Penalver y Cardenas, Luis Bishop
(New Orleans)

The Bishop decrees: That Father Antonio de Sedella, pastor of the Cathedral Church, recognize the schools of Santiago Coquelin, Pascual Lartigue, Estevan Albrier, and Mr. Brichel, examine their licenses, their teaching concerning the precepts of the Catholic Religion and inform him about everything. This is signed by Bishop Penalver y Cardenas and witnessed by Rivas. To this is added a note by Saldivar certifying that, on the same day, he notified Father Antonio Sedella of the above decree.

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1795 Oct. 22

Sedella, Father Antonio de
(New Orleans)

Father Sedella states:
1. That he has examined the primary schools of Santiago Coquelin, a native of New Orleans, an old man who has licenses from the government and from Dr. Teodoro Tirso Enriquez, who was Vicar of these Provinces; that of Pascual Lartigue, a native of Bayonne, and that of Estevan Albier, a native of Paris.
2. That all these men are Roman Catholics. The first has had his school for a very long time; the second for eleven years, and the third for two years.
3. That Lartigue said that he had had a license but it was burnt in the fire; Albier said that he would solicit it.
4. That Father Sedella examined them concerning the Catholic Religion and all answered in a learned way. Their conduct also is good. The method of teaching seems regular.
5. That Mr. Brichel does not have school; he teaches some in their houses. That is all Father Sedella can state concerning the decree of Oct. 20. This is signed by Father Antonio de Sedella.

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1795 Oct. 23

Penalver y Cardenas, Luis Bishop
(New Orleans)

a) That Pascual Lartigue and Estevan Albier, since the information of Father Sedella is in their behalf, must be notified that they can carry on their ministries with the license of the Governor.
b) That Mr. Brichel should appear before Bishop Penalver to determine what is suitable. Signed by Bishop Penalver y Cardenas. To this is added a note by Rivas certifying that the above decree was issued and signed by the Bishop on Oct. 23, 1795. To this is added a note by Saldivar certifying that, on the same day, he notified Estevan Albier of the above decree. In another note Saldivar certifies that immediately he notified Pascual Lartigue of the above decree. Another note is added by Saldivar that he immediately notified Juan Brichel of the above decree.

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1795 Oct. 24

Rivas, Dr. Joseph Maria de
(New Orleans)

Rivas certifies: That Juan Brichel, Father Antonio de Sedella being present, appeared before the Bishop and was asked concerning the Christian Religion. He answered in a very satisfactory way; and since he has a license from the government to teach Negroes and Mulatoes and there is nothing against his life, the Bishop permitted him to continue his teachings on the same terms. This is signed by the Bishop, Father de Sedella and Rivas. To this is added a note by Rivas, dated Oct. 24, 1794, certifying that in virtue of the decree of Sep. 28, the monastery of the Ursulines whose superior is Sister Tereza de St. Xavier Farjon, was visited. The procedures of the visit are contained in the documents of Oct. 6 and 23. to this is added a decree by the Bishop, on Nov. 26, 1795, ordering that the provisional instructions he made for the government of this parish, be added to the set of the documents of the visit. Signed by the Bishop. to this is added a note by Rivas, dated Nov. 26, 1795, certifying that licenses of preaching, celebrating and confessing were sent to fathers Agustin Lamare and Thirso Peleagonzalo, which by the procedures of Aug. 10 remained pending.

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1795 Nov. 25

Penalver y Cardenas, Luis Bishop
(New Orleans)

The Bishop stated that since his arrival in New Orleans on July 17, 1795, he has been establishing some points to better the ecclesiastical discipline and for the respect of the Church. Accordingly the Bishop formed the following instructions to be carried out in the Cathedral Church of Louisiana:
1. The two assistant Canons have the annual income of 600 "pesos" each one, without any other obvention or emolument.
2. the Pastor "del Sagrario" of the Cathedral has the income of forty "pesos" every month; two substitutes with twenty-five "pesos" each, another with thirty, and the obligation of serving the chaplaincy of the Ursulines; a main sacristan with thirty "pesos." All this is paid by the Royal Exchequer, although the last position is vacant.
3. The Canons will have to sing alternatively, when the Bishop cannot, the Masses specified in the Pontifical, and other solemn Masses, to wit: Circumcision of our Lord; Epiphany; Purification; Annunciation; St. Peter and St. Paul; Ascent of Our Lady; St. Louis, patron of New Orleans, all Saints; Conception; Christmas; Ashes; Palm, Sunday; Holy Thursday; offices of Good Friday; Holy Saturday; Resurrection; Ascent of our Lord; Pentecost; Corpus Christi; Dedication of the Church.
4. The other holy days of the year will be in charge of the Pastor. He will be helped by the substitutes whenever it may be necessary to explain the doctrine of the Church to the parishioners.
5. Besides the above mentioned Masses, the Bishop lists the other Masses, vespers and communions of the other clergy of the Cathedral Church.
6. He lists the functions of the other clergy of the Church.
7. He lists the order of seating in the Cathedral.
8. He lists the rituals and special liturgical guides to be followed.
9. He sets the days for preaching in the Cathedral.
10. The Pastor has three substitutes for better and quicker administration of the sacraments. The substitutes will take turns every week. The one who is on duty will give the sacraments. He will notify the Pastor of everything. At the end of his week he will notify the Prelate of what has happened in the Parish.
11. To this end the substitute on duty must stay near the church. The others, because they are not on actual duty are not excused from hearing confessions, or any other thing that the Pastor may order.
12. Every year during Lent, or immediately after Easter, the Pastor will go or send one of his substitutes to the Farms to confess and administer other sacraments, and exhort the faithful to come sometimes to the Parish in an act of gratitude to the mother Church. Before the departure, the Bishop will give the instructions he may judge suitable, and authorize with the opportune faculties.
13. The Church has a mui or sacristan, a sub-chanter, three singers, one of which is organist, and four acolytes. All are paid by the income of the "Fabrica."
14. He lists the obligations of the sacristan, and the acolytes.
15. He lists the obligations of the sub-chanter and the singers; also of the acolytes on week days. The document is signed by the Bishop of Louisiana and witnessed by Dr. Rivas. To this is added a note by Rivas that, on the same day, he notified Father Francisco Peres Guerrero of the above instructions. Another note that he notified on the same day Father Tomas Hasset. Another note that he notified Father Antonio de Sedella], Pastor of "el Sagrario." Another note that he notified Father Ubaldo Delgado. Another note that he notified Father Agustin Lamare. Another note that he notified Father Patricio Walsh. Another note that he notified Father Ramon Palao. Another note that he notified the substitutes of the Pastor, Fathers Luis de Quintanilla, Tirso Peleagonzalo and Estevan de Valoria. Another note that he notified the singer and the organist. Another note that he notified the sacristan and the acolytes. To this is added another note by Rivas, dated November 25 for the government of the parish. To this is added a decree by Bishop Penalver y Cardenas, dated Dec. 22, 1795, The Bishop orders:
a) That, since he has issued yesterday an instruction for the government of the Pastors of the Diocese in use and exercise of their ministries, a record of it should be added to the other procedures; likewise the regulations (Arancel) addressed to them concerning their income. The Bishop will opportunely notify the King of this.
b) That the visit of the side altars of the Cathedral church which should have taken place according to the procedures of Aug. 2, should take place now. This is signed by the Bishop and witnessed by Rivas.

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1795 Dec. 22

Rivas, Dr. Joseph Maria de
(New Orleans)

Rivas certifies: That the Bishop went to the Cathedral Church to examine the side altars: the bigger one whose procedures remained pending on Aug. 2; the one on the right dedicated to our Lady of the Rosary, made with the alms of the faithful, and that on the left dedicated to St. Francis of Assissi, and made with the legacy left for this purpose by Father Francisco Caldes. The painting and gilding of both altars were taken care of by D. Andres Almonaster y Roxas who built also the Cathedral Church. This is signed by the Bishop and witnessed by Rivas. To this are added the following documents:

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1795 Dec. 21

Penalver y Cardenas, Luis Bishop
(New Orleans)

to the pastors of the Diocese of Louisiana

The Bishop dictated the following instructions whereby the pastors of his diocese should be directed until a synod fixes these ecclesiastical matters.
1. Reasons of these instructions. The Bishop's first care when he arrived in the Diocese was the spiritual good of the sheep charged to his care. Many of these parishioners are 500 leagues away from New Orleans and it is impossible to take proper care of them. Wherefore, he addresses to the pastors of his diocese these instructions, which shall remind them of their duties which they must accomplish.
2. The Pastors in word and in deed must be as mirrors of virtue. The Pastors as rectors, and spiritual physicians of the flock, must live according to their status and comfort the parishioners by their words and virtues, and by waiting with humble confidence the recompense of their deeds.
3. Neither very grave nor very familiar. The conduct of the pastors in regard to their parishioners must be such as neither their gravity may make them hateful, nor their familiarity, despicable.
4. Residence of the parish. The residence is essential for the accomplishing of one's duties. As far as possible, the residence must be contiguous to the Church, in order that the service may be carried out with greater promptitude. the pastors can never, without a written license of the Prelate, leave the territory of the parish.
5. Reading and study. He who may not have the necessary instruction cannot become a teacher. The Ethics learned at the Seminary has to be revised not to be forgotten. The Pastors must study continuously Liturgy, the Catechism (of Pius V, Holy Tridentine Council) and the "Rituale Romanum." The Bishop will check up all these circumstances in the Pastoral Visit.
6. Zeal and diligence. The obligations of the Pastors are very serious. They must take care with zeal, diligence, promptitude, and vigilance of the administration of the Holy Sacraments.
7. To visit and console the sick. Whenever the distance permits it, the Pastor must visit the sick to console and comfort them until recovery or death. In the case of death, the dying must be helped in the last moments.
8. To exhort the sick to make their wills. The Pastor as soon as he knows that one of his parishioners has been ill for three days, must exhort him to dispose of his goods, making his will.
9. Obligations of the Notary and Pastor in regard to dead persons who have made wills. If the dead parishioner has made a will, the Notary before whom the testament was declared, must carry out the testamentary clauses, as it is ordered by the Royal letters patent of Feb. 11. 1671, that the Pastor, insofar as he is concerned, and the executors may fulfill the pious legacies.
10. Discrete, prudent and fraternal correction. The Pastors must make their corrections in a discrete, prudent and fraternal way so as not to exasperate the parishioners, and to win them. When the parishioner is living a scandalous life in concubinage, the Pastor must notify the Royal Justice, and the Bishop of any known omission to the Royal letters patent of Dec. 21, 1787, and give an account to His Majesty so he can take the proper measures.
11. Married persons without the legitimate wives. The Pastors must proceed likewise if some of the married parishioners are not living with their legitimate wives so that the Royal Judges may apply Law 14, Title F, book I of the abridgment of the Indies.
12. Relations with the Civil authorities. The Pastors must maintain the best harmony with the Governors and commanders seeking to gain their good will with honor and without degradation of the State. Thus, they will serve better God and the King.
13. The prerogatives of the Crown. The Pastors must defend the prerogatives of the crown and the persons that represent them as well, in such way that it may appear that the custody of these prerogatives is privately entrusted to them.
14. To avoid discords and seek peace. In controversies the Pastors must always seek to mediate whenever such a position does not offend God. They will advise their parishioners to the same conduct in injuries and litigations.
15. Divorced matrimonies. If there may be some separated couples, the Pastors shall charitable [charitably?] warn them to live together, offering intervention to settle their misunderstandings. If the counsel is not sufficient, the Pastors must exhort them to appear before the Ecclesiastical Tribunal in order to make use of the rights they may have. Because they do not have authority to separate at will.
16. Arrest to prevent escape. In the case when arrest to prevent escape may be necessary, the Pastore must solicit in formal style the help of the Royal Justice.
17. Limits of the parishes. All the parishes have their limits; the pastors must respect them. They must not administer the sacraments in alien territory, unless with the consent of the respective Pastor or in the case of some urgent necessity.
18. To know all the parishioners, even the non-Catholics. The pastors must know all the parishioners that live within the limits of his parish, even those of diverse religion. For this purpose, the Bishop ordered by his circular of Sept. 3, 1795 that they draw up every year a census of the parishes which is to be sent to the Bishop.
19. Fulfilling of the Paschal Precept. In that circular of Sept. 3, it was ordered also that the pastors should take notes of: a) persons who have not fulfilled the Paschal precept; b) persons who belong to other religions than the Roman Catholic; c) the state of the Church; d) all that may be necessary for the welfare of the parish. They must inform the Bishop of these points and place a copy in the Archives of the parish.
20. The Mass of the festive days must be applied for the people. Both the proprietary pastors and the provisional ones must apply the Mass of the festive days for the people, according to the declarations of the Pope Benedict XIV in his Bull "Cum Semper."
21. To teach the Christian Doctrine and combat errors. The Pastors have the obligation to teach Christian doctrine on the festive days and mainly in Advent and Lent. This is one of the principal obligations of their ministry. Furthermore, they must combat atheism, deism, materialism, and other errors against the dogma, and the Christian Morals, which infest the Diocese.
22. The teaching must be according to the capacity of the hearers. The Pastors in their teachings must conform themselves to the capacity of their auditors. Even though there are public schools of the best quality and sermons in other churches when the spiritual nourishment is furnished plentifully, because the contrary doctrines have been condemned by Innocent XIII in his Bull for the reformation of the clergy in Spain.
23. The Pastors themselves must give the Paschal Communion to the parishioners. All the parishioners must receive the Paschal communion from the hands of their pastors and in the case of some impediment from the assistants, all the privileges claimed by the Regulars on this point are abrogated.
24. Publication of the Pascal obligations. The pastors must publish the time for fulfilling of the Paschal Precept in the High Mass. The time for fulfilling it will be until Dominica in Albis (Low Sunday). Nevertheless, the Pastors where there is no vicars to make one or two extensions whenever it may be necessary. But these extensions must never be beyond Trinity Sunday. They must give an account of all this in the census as it was ordered in numbers (8 and 19).
25. Sick parishioners. When some of the parishioners cannot fulfill the Paschal Precept on account of illness, the Pastors have to confess them in their houses or farms, taking to them the Eucharist.
26. The carrying of the viaticum to distant places. When the Pastors have to carry the Viaticum to distant places, in the country, they shall go on horseback, with surplice and stole, bare headed and the Holy Sacrament in a Reliquary within a purse hanging on the neck by a string. He must be accompanied by two assistants each one with a lantern, and a third one will carry a parasol to protect the pastor from the inclemencies of the weather.
27. The Sacrament of Penance and the reading of the penitential canons. Penance is the sacrament in which the fruit of God's word is reaped. The Pastors, in regard to this point, must abide by the teachers of Morals and the Tridentine Catechism. The Bishop recommends them the frequent reading of the Penitential Canons.
28. As to the place where the Sacrament or Penance is to be administered. The Sacrament of Penance will be administered in the private houses only to sick persons. It cannot be administered by night in concealed places, as this has been forbidden by the holy tribunal of Inquisition, except in those cases determined by Law.
29. Matrimony has to be celebrated in the churches. The pastors must assist at marriages which must be celebrated in church, unless there is a dispensation by the Ordinary. The ceremonies are to be carried out according to the precepts of the "Rituale Romanum," and the pious exhortations of the Rituale are to be read.
30. Procedures in celebrating the matrimony. When some neighbors, natives of the parish, want to contract matrimony, the pastor must draw up a formula in which is given an account of the filiation, nationality, celibacy and parish of the contracting parties. All these facts have to be witnessed not only by the contracting parties but by at least two known witnesses.
31. Permission or consent of the parents to get married. The witnesses above mentioned must prove the permission or consent of the parents of the couple seeking marriage, in order that they may get married. For want of parents, the permission which must be approved by the Justice. For want of relatives, the permission is to be given by the "vice-relative." If the parents or relatives do not grant the permission, judicial determination that declare the opposition without foundation is sufficient for the marriage.
32. Matrimony of (strangers) and military persons. If one of the parties is a stranger who generally does not have either parents or relatives in these regions, the permission or consent will be given by the "vice-relative." If one of the pretenders is a military person, the license will be given by the King when he is an officer or by some superiors of his Regiment. The Royal ordinance and the later Royal letters patent will be strictly observed.
33. Procedures to prove the celibacy of the strangers in parishes farther than 20 leagues from New Orleans. The strangers shall prove judicially their celibacy. In the parishes farther than 20 leagues from New Orleans, the pastors are permitted to receive the pertinent proofs. For this purpose, they will avail themselves of two witnesses who will supply the Notary's place. Two or three witnesses, under oath, will declare the celibacy of the stranger, and, according to these proofs, the license to get married will or will not be given. Having this license and the certification of baptism or another information replacing it, the pastors will proceed to the banns of marriage.
34. Procedures to prove the celibacy of strangers in parishes distant less than 20 leagues from New Orleans. In this case, the strangers come to the city to take out papers. In the parish of San Augustine, Florida, they must go to the Vicar. Both in the archives of the respective parishes a copy will be kept of all the judicial proceedings and the matrimonial papers with all the testimonial documents in order that they may be checked during the Pastoral visit.
35. Publication of the banns and of their dispensation. The pastors will publish the banns after the offertory on three festive days. The publication of the banns must be made in clear and distinct voice in order that the parishioners may get well acquainted with their content. The Pastors will never dispense from the banns because this is not their concern nor celebrate the marriage without this requisition or without the necessary licenses. In a case of acting on the contrary, they will be held responsible in the most strict sense.
36. Marriages between non-Catholics and mixed marriages. In the marriages of non-Catholics or between a Catholic and a Protestant, the Pastor will follow the instruction of Nov. 30, 1792, ordered to be observed by the Royal Order of Dec. 16, of the same year. The celebration of these will be carried out in the following manner: a) The marriage will be assisted by the Pastors without sacred ornaments, outside of the church and with two witnesses. b) There will be no nuptial benedictions and the sacramental words: "Ego vos conjugo" will not be pronounced. c) The pastors will record in the special book the names of the contracting parties and witnesses, the sect they belong to, the place and the date, all according to the instructions of 1792.
37. The parochial books. Besides the above book, the pastors must have the following books: a) Two books of baptism; b) two books of matrimony; c) two books of burials. One book of each pair will be for the white parishioners and the other for the Indians and Half-breeds. They must have also a book of confirmations. The census mentioned in numbers 18 and 19 will be considered as the book "De statu animarum."
38. How the registering of the entries is to be done. They must be written down in Spanish according to the order prescribed by the formulas of the Rituale Romanum. In the records of baptism, the first and last names of the grandparents must be added; otherwise the pastors will be held responsible for failing to fulfill these dispositions.
39. Administration of Baptism. The Bishop has had the opportunity to observe that private Baptism is administered to many in their own houses. Moreover, it is usual to postpone for several years to send them to church to receive the holy oil and Chrism. Private baptism will be administered only in case of necessity. The pastors must warn the parishioners to take the newly born to church to be baptized eight days after their birth. If any of the parishioners opposes this order, the pastor must notify the Bishop.
40. Delegation of faculties only with just motive. The pastors are the ordinary ministers of the sacraments and they can delegate their faculties. However, they will delegate only when there is a just reason. They ought to prefer as delegates the substitute approved by the Ordinary because of the danger the administration of the sacraments is exposed to.
41. Obligations of the substitute pastor. When the pastor has a substitute, he is not by this mere fact excused from his ministerial obligations. On the contrary he must continue to administer the sacraments, and his assistant will administer them only when the Pastor is not able to do it either becaus
The bishop exhorts one of his priests to do more.

1796 Jan. 8
Penalver y Cardenas, Luis Bishop
(New Orleans)

to Father Sebastien Flavian,
?Besancon, O.M.C.?
(St. Charles of les Allemands)
The Bishop states: 1) That he received Father Flavian's letter of last Dec. 29 as well as the census of the parish of St. Charles of the first coast of Les Allemands of its need and of other occurrences.
2) That with sorrow he read that out of 2,232 souls mentioned in the census only eight have fulfilled their obligations towards the Church during the year 1795. This could not be but for the pastor's indolence. He has to go after the sheep in the woods if they are so untamed.
3) That Father Flavian must preach every Sunday, holidays, and whenever it may be necessary. If the parishioners do not come to church to listen to God's teachings, he must go to their houses either with exhortation or reproaches, according to the circumstances. Not all will be so deaf as not to listen to him.
4) Accordingly, that Father Flavian must visit the parishioners and remind them of their obligations as Christians. He must do so with all the lower class people and exhort them to send their slaves to church.
5) That Father Flavian should act with gentleness and charity in order to make the parishioners docile and tractable when they understand that they do not have other aim than the salvation of their souls. However, the fact that Father Flavian contents himself with saying that only eight of his flock are obedient whereas 2,224 are rebellious, makes the Bishop consider him as useless servant.
6) That Father Flavian should preach to the parishioners not to give private Baptism unless in case of necessity. As soon as he learns of any birth he must go to the house within eight days and ask the parents to bring the child to church for the sacrament, according to instructions of the King.
7) That Father Flavian must make up the marriage records and warn the parties to confess four or eight days before the marriage. They who do not obey this order cannot be married. they will serve as example for the others.
8) That although the inhabitants want the slaves to be baptised without instruction, Father Flavian must not allow exhorting the masters to give them the necessary instructions.
9) That he must reproach those who make the slaves work on days of obligation; they have to dedicate the day to Our Lord. Moreover, Father Flavian should notify the commander, who has the necessary jurisdiction to make the law effective.
10) That he does not see any reason why the parishioners should notify the pastor before the burial or the Baptism of a slave, but that they could do so as they bring the corpse or the one to be baptised, attending however, to the details for the entry and clarity of the books.
11) That whenever the pastor is called to administer the sacraments he must be accompanied by an assistant. The same holds for the Mass on holy days.
12) Finally, that Father Flavian has to give account to God of 2,232 souls under his care and it is very bad administration to gain only eight out of this number, while the others remain astray. Father Flavian must work with this in mind so that nothing will be difficult to him, and his efforts will be agreeable.
13) That in regard to the rest of Father Flavian's letter about the local situation of the church and when he may come to New Orleans, he will talk with the Bishop who will then decide what is suitable.
Signed by the Bishop of Louisiana.

The bishop exhorts his priests to be more enthusiastic.

1796 Jan. 8
Penalver y Cardenas, Luis Bishop
(New Orleans)

to Father Sebastien Flavian,
?Besancon, O.M.C.?
(St. Charles of les Allemands)
The Bishop states: 1) That he received Father Flavian's letter of last Dec. 29 as well as the census of the parish of St. Charles of the first coast of Les Allemands of its need and of other occurrences.
2) That with sorrow he read that out of 2,232 souls mentioned in the census only eight have fulfilled their obligations towards the Church during the year 1795. This could not be but for the pastor's indolence. He has to go after the sheep in the woods if they are so untamed.
3) That Father Flavian must preach every Sunday, holidays, and whenever it may be necessary. If the parishioners do not come to church to listen to God's teachings, he must go to their houses either with exhortation or reproaches, according to the circumstances. Not all will be so deaf as not to listen to him.
4) Accordingly, that Father Flavian must visit the parishioners and remind them of their obligations as Christians. He must do so with all the lower class people and exhort them to send their slaves to church.
5) That Father Flavian should act with gentleness and charity in order to make the parishioners docile and tractable when they understand that they do not have other aim than the salvation of their souls. However, the fact that Father Flavian contents himself with saying that only eight of his flock are obedient whereas 2,224 are rebellious, makes the Bishop consider him as useless servant.
6) That Father Flavian should preach to the parishioners not to give private Baptism unless in case of necessity. As soon as he learns of any birth he must go to the house within eight days and ask the parents to bring the child to church for the sacrament, according to instructions of the King.
7) That Father Flavian must make up the marriage records and warn the parties to confess four or eight days before the marriage. They who do not obey this order cannot be married. they will serve as example for the others.
8) That although the inhabitants want the slaves to be baptised without instruction, Father Flavian must not allow exhorting the masters to give them the necessary instructions.
9) That he must reproach those who make the slaves work on days of obligation; they have to dedicate the day to Our Lord. Moreover, Father Flavian should notify the commander, who has the necessary jurisdiction to make the law effective.
10) That he does not see any reason why the parishioners should notify the pastor before the burial or the Baptism of a slave, but that they could do so as they bring the corpse or the one to be baptised, attending however, to the details for the entry and clarity of the books.
11) That whenever the pastor is called to administer the sacraments he must be accompanied by an assistant. The same holds for the Mass on holy days.
12) Finally, that Father Flavian has to give account to God of 2,232 souls under his care and it is very bad administration to gain only eight out of this number, while the others remain astray. Father Flavian must work with this in mind so that nothing will be difficult to him, and his efforts will be agreeable.
13) That in regard to the rest of Father Flavian's letter about the local situation of the church and when he may come to New Orleans, he will talk with the Bishop who will then decide what is suitable.
Signed by the Bishop of Louisiana.