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I'm trying to understand this, where this comes from, what this means for different people... Can you recommend any documents or early church writings that discuss this?
This video does a good job: 

Here are links to the full text of Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma by Ludwig Ott and Sources of Catholic Dogma by Henry Denzinger.  They both cite meticulously so you will easily be able to see what Church documents, Fathers, Popes, and Doctors had to say about the doctrine. 

https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7fZscRM...sp=sharing
https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7fZscRM...sp=sharing
Try this from the Slaves of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. I do not agree with their position on water baptism but their position has been judged to be within the realms of orthodoxy.
Catechism of the Catholic Church

http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/__P29.HTM

Start with 830.
There was a discussion about this a while back featuring yours truly. Maybe that will help you. Here's the link: http://catholicforum.fisheaters.com/inde...899.0.html

As you will see, I was largely involved with the debate. If you have any questions, feel free to message me.
(06-12-2013, 11:14 PM)Sant Anselmo Wrote: [ -> ]This video does a good job: 

Here are links to the full text of Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma by Ludwig Ott and Sources of Catholic Dogma by Henry Denzinger.  They both cite meticulously so you will easily be able to see what Church documents, Fathers, Popes, and Doctors had to say about the doctrine. 

https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7fZscRM...sp=sharing
https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B7fZscRM...sp=sharing

Okay...I wouldn't trust the video too much, since it's requirements for being "outside of the church" are extremely slim. That was the problem that I had, since I didn't know how some one could recognize the Catholic Church as the true Church and still refuse to be in it...

What I have come to believe is that if a Protestant is validly baptized, he cannot be held to the sin of not being a Catholic. If a Protestant is saved, it is because he hasn't explicitly denied a Catholic dogma. But: The only way for sins to be forgive come from the Catholic Church, as defined by Boniface VIII when he stated in Unum Sanctam, "We are obliged by the faith to believe and hold -- and we do firmly believe and sincerely confess -- that there is one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, and that outside this Church there is neither salvation nor remission of sins…".

Here's what I have come to believe must happen in order for one to be saved and not be inside the visible church:

1. Implicit desire for baptism. (Okay, talk to Joelkurtzhalts. Some say that water baptism is absolutely necessary, and if you have desire for one, God will find a way to give you one. Others say desire can be just as good as a water baptism)
2. Must not commit a mortal sin or break the natural law
3. Must not explicitly deny a Catholic dogma
4. Must constantly be seeking for the true Church.
5. Depending on who you ask (again, talk to Joel): Positive belief in the Trinity and the Incarnation.

Those are what I, through my own research and discussions, have come to believe.
The video is fine.  He specifically mention the need to be in a state of grace if one is outside the Church and deliberately seeking God's will.  It would be nice if the Brother would have expanded on that a bit, but at least he spoke about it.
(06-14-2013, 10:02 PM)FlaviusGratianus Wrote: [ -> ]Okay...I wouldn't trust the video too much, since it's requirements for being "outside of the church" are extremely slim. That was the problem that I had, since I didn't know how some one could recognize the Catholic Church as the true Church and still refuse to be in it...

What I have come to believe is that if a Protestant is validly baptized, he cannot be held to the sin of not being a Catholic. If a Protestant is saved, it is because he hasn't explicitly denied a Catholic dogma. But: The only way for sins to be forgive come from the Catholic Church, as defined by Boniface VIII when he stated in Unum Sanctam, "We are obliged by the faith to believe and hold -- and we do firmly believe and sincerely confess -- that there is one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, and that outside this Church there is neither salvation nor remission of sins…".
I can offer you one example of how, but that may depend on how you understand the relationship between the Orthodox and the Catholic Church to be, i.e. whether or not the separation a real division from the church or an administrative difference which, if overcome, would re-unite branches of the true Church.
(06-13-2013, 08:26 AM)Scotus Wrote: [ -> ]I do not agree with their position on water baptism but their position has been judged to be within the realms of orthodoxy.

Pope Pius XII wouldn't have excommunicated Fr. Feeney if he hadn't been a heretic.