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I was talking with some people about the doctrine of extra Ecclesiam nulla salus.  My sister asked how then can a baptism be valid from a non-Catholic community? 

Here's an example I'm curious about:  If an adult learns about Jesus from a local Baptist minister and then gets baptised, he has all of his sins (original and personal) forgiven, right?  If he leaves his baptism and promptly gets hit by the church bus, he would go to heaven (with a likely stop in purgatory). 

How does that work?  Does the salvation that came via the baptism still come through the Church?  What if this individual had heard the claims of the Catholic Church and rejected them?  Does that sin of rejecting Christ's Church immediately 'reapply' after his baptism had forgiven it and therefore he still (may) be condemned? 

Any insights or thoughts or especailly official teachings/documents would be most appreciated.

Michael
It is a good question.

The matter is different for infants/children who receive a valid baptism from a non-Catholic minister and those who receive baptism as an adult with the full use of their reason by a non-Catholic minister from an outside heretical sect.

As I have posted elsewhere before:

Those children who are baptized by Protestants become and actually are members of the Catholic Church (although being unaware of this) given that the Sacrament properly belongs to the Church-The Explanation of the Baltimore Catechism Concerning the Salvation of Non-Catholics, 1891 by Rev. Thomas L. Kinkead ).  They remain so at least until when they begin to embrace the particular errors or heresies of their sect, as those who reach the age of reason and adulthood outside the Church cannot assent to the Faith because they lack the formal motive of faith, which is the Authority of God as proposed by His Catholic Church (the proximate rule of faith). As for adults past the age of reason, St. Augustine explains: "Baptism does not profit a man outside unity with the Church ... For many heretics also possess this Sacrament but not the fruits of salvation ... The benefits which flow from Baptism are necessarily fruits which belong to the true Church alone. Children baptized in other communions cease to be members of the Church when, after reaching the age of reason, they make formal profession of heresy, as, for example, by receiving communion in a non-Catholic Church."

And St. Fulgentius: "Hold most firmly and never doubt in the least that the Sacrament of Baptism is able to exist not only within the Catholic Church but also among heretics ... but outside the Catholic Church it cannot be of any profit; nay, just as within the Church salvation is conferred through the Sacrament of Baptism upon those who believe rightly, so too, outside the Catholic Church, ruin is heaped up for those who were Baptized by the same Baptism if they do not return to the Church. For it is the unity as such of this ecclesiastical society that avails unto salvation, so that a man is not saved by Baptism if it were not given in that place where it is necessary to be administered."

**Protestants who belong to non-Catholic sects and so are visibly separated from the Catholic Church are (or were traditionally) held by the Church to be formal heretics in the external forum: "In the external forum, all those who have received the full use of reason and still persevere in heretical sects are presumed and considered by the Church to be heretics." (Cardinal Johann Franzelin, De Ecclesia Christi,1887, p. 406)

“Manifest heretics and schismatics are excluded from membership in the Church. Heretics separate themselves from the unity of faith and worship; schismatics from the unity of government, and both reject the authority of the Church. So far as exclusion from the Church is concerned, it matters not whether the heresy or schism be formal or material. Those born and reared in heresy or schism may be sincere in their belief and practice, yet they publicly and willingly reject the Church and attach themselves to sects opposed to her; they are not guilty of sin in the matter, but they are not members of the Church. For this reason, the Church makes no distinction between formal and material heresy when receiving converts into her fold." (Father Sylvester Berry, The Church of Christ, 1927, pg. 128)

St. Augustine states:

"The Church gives us to understand that some men can receive even Baptism outside her, but that no one can either receive or possess salvation outside her. Thus, the Baptism of the Church can exist outside the Church, but the gift of a blessed life is not found except within the Church which was founded on a Rock and received the keys of binding and loosing. It is she who keeps and possesses every power of her Spouse and Lord. For the water of the Church is salutary and holy for those who use it well, but outside the Church no one can use it well ... It may be that someone may have Baptism apart, but that it should do him good is impossible ... This man says: "I have Baptism!" Yes, you have it, but Baptism without Charity profits you nothing, because without Charity you are nothing (1 Corinthians 13:2). For outside the Church you would have Baptism to destruction. If you have it inside, Baptism begins to profit you towards salvation."

Saint Augustine, Doctor (died A.D. 430): "No man can find salvation except in the Catholic Church. Outside the Catholic Church one can have everything except salvation. One can have honor, one can have the sacraments, one can sing alleluia, one can answer amen, one can have faith in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and preach it too, but never can one find salvation except in the Catholic Church." (Sermo ad Caesariensis Ecclesia plebem)

While some may disagree, as stated above, Baptism into a non-Catholic sect as an adult would be deemed as unfruitful unto salvation. 
Thank you BC - Very helpful! 

Would it be objectively better for someone to be baptized in a non-Catholic community than to be not baptized at all? 

Michael
(07-05-2016, 11:47 AM)Michael Levanduski Wrote: [ -> ]Would it be objectively better for someone to be baptized in a non-Catholic community than to be not baptized at all? 
As long as it's a valid Baptism (Trinitarian formula, etc), absolutely yes. The removal of original sin and all personal sins, even in a non-Catholic setting, is better than remaining in a state of original sin and/or mortal sin. It's just still, understandably, dangerous for that person to remain in a non-Catholic sect.