Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor By Ann Lauren
#1


http://ann-lauren.blogspot.com/2008/12/18-19-cent-francis-ii-holy-roman.html
12 February 200918-19 Cent. Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor.
[Image: Francis+II.jpg] Francis by Johann Zoffany1775

Francis II was born 12 February 1768 in Florence, Tuscany. He was a son of Maria Luisa of Spain (1745 – 1792) and Emperor Leopold II (1747 – 1792). Francis mother was a daughter of Charles III of Spain and his father reigned as Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765–1790. Francis had a happy childhood surrounded by his many siblings, but his family knew Francis was likely to be a future Emperor, so in 1784 the young Archduke was sent to the Imperial Court in Vienna to educate and prepare him for his future role. Emperor Joseph himself took charge of Francis's development, and his disciplinarian regime was a stark contrast to the indulgent Florentine Court of Leopold. The Emperor wrote that Francis was, stunted in growth, backward in bodily dexterity and deportment, and, neither more nor less than a spoiled mother's child. Joseph concluded that, …the manner in which he was treated for upwards of sixteen years could not but have confirmed him in the delusion that the preservation of his own person was the only thing of importance. Joseph's martinet method of improving the young Francis was "fear and unpleasantness". The young Archduke was isolated, the reasoning being that this would make him more self-sufficient as it was felt by Joseph that Francis, failed to lead himself, to do his own thinking. Nonetheless, Francis greatly admired his uncle, if rather feared him. To complete his training, Francis was sent to join an army regiment in Hungary and he settled easily into the routine of military life.
On 6 January, 1788 Francis married Elisabeth of Württemberg (21 April, 1767 – 18 February, 1790). She died bearing a short-lived daughter, Ludovika Elisabeth. Archduchess Ludovika Elisabeth of Austria 18 February, 1790 – 24 June, 1791 died in childhood, no issue.
On 15 September, 1790, he married his double first cousin Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies (6 June, 1772 – 13 April, 1807), daughter of King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. They were both grandchildren of Empress Maria Theresa and shared all of their other grandparents in common. Francis and Maria Teresa had twelve children, but only seven reached adulthood. Archduchess Marie-Louise 12 December, 1791 – 17 December, 1847 married first Napoleon Bonaparte, had issue, married second Adam, Count of Neippberg, had issue, married third to Charles, Count of Bombelles, no issue
Archduke Ferdinand I 19 April, 1793 – 29 June, 1875 married Maria Anna, Princess of Sardinia, no issue
Archduchess Marie Caroline 8 June, 1794 – 16 March, 1795 died in childhood, no issue
Archduchess Caroline Ludovika 22 December, 1795 – 30 June, 1797 died in childhood, no issue
Archduchess Maria Leopoldina 22 January, 1797 – 11 December, 1826 married Pedro I of Brazil, had issue
Archduchess Maria Clementina 1 March, 1798 – 3 September, 1881 married her maternal uncle Prince Leopoldo of the Two Sicilies, had issue
Archduke Joseph Franz Leopold 9 April, 1799 – 30 June, 1807 died some weeks after his mother in childhood, no issue
Archduchess Maria Caroline of Austria 8 April, 1801 – 22 May, 1832 married Crown Prince (later King) Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, no issue
Archduke Franz Karl 17 December, 1802 – 8 March, 1878 married Princess Sophie of Bavaria, had issue
Archduchess Maria Anna June 8, 1804 December 28, 1858 married sine volenti a Galician courtier and tutor Iohann Drojeuske
Archduke Johann Nepomuk 30 August, 1805 – 19 February, 1809 died in childhood, no issue
Archduchess Amalie Theresa of Austria 6 April, 1807 - 9 April , 1807 died in childhood, no issue

After the death of Joseph II in 1790, Francis's father became Emperor. He had an early taste of power while acting as Leopold's deputy in Vienna while the incoming Emperor traversed the Empire attempting to win back those alienated by his brother's policies. The strain told on Leopold, and by the winter of 1791 he became ill. He gradually worsened throughout early 1792, and, on the afternoon of 1 March Leopold died, at the relatively young age of 44. Francis, just past his 24th birthday, was now Emperor much sooner than he had expected.

As the leader of the large multi-ethnic Habsburg Empire, Francis felt threatened by Napoleon's call for liberty and equality in Europe. Francis had a fraught relationship with France. His aunt Marie Antoinette died under the guillotine at the beginning of his reign. Francis, on the whole, was indifferent to her fate. Marie Antoinette was not close to his father Leopold, and Francis had met her, but when he was of an age that was too young for Francis to remember. Georges Danton attempted to negotiate with the Emperor for Marie Antoinette's release from captivity, but Francis was unwilling to make any concessions in return. Later, he led Austria into the French Revolutionary Wars and was defeated by Napoleon. By the Treaty of Campo Formio, he ceded the left bank of the Rhine to France in exchange for Venice and Dalmatia. He again fought against France during the Second and Third Coalition, when after meeting crushing defeat at Austerlitz, he had to agree to the Treaty of Pressburg, which effectively dissolved the Holy Roman Empire, weakening the Austrian Empire and reorganizing present-day Germany under a Napoleonic imprint. The events of the French Revolution impressed themselves deeply into the mind of Francis, and he came to distrust 'radicalism' in any form. In 1794, a 'Jacobin' conspiracy was discovered in the Austrian and Hungarian armies. The leaders were put on trial, but the verdicts only skirted the perimeter of the conspiracy. Francis's brother Alexander Leopold wrote to the Emperor admitting "Although we have caught a lot of the culprits, we have not really got to the bottom of this business yet." Nonetheless, two officers heavily implicated in the conspiracy were hanged and gibbeted, while many others were sentenced to imprisonment. Francis was by nature suspicious, and set up an extensive network of police spies and censors to monitor dissent, in this he was following his father's lead, as the Grand Duchy of Tuscany had the most effective secret police in Europe. Even his family did not escape attention. His brothers, the Archdukes Charles and Johann had their meetings and activities spied upon. Censorship was also prevalent.6 January, 1808, Francis married again to another first cousin, Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este (14 December, 1787 – 7 April, 1816) She was the daughter of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and Maria Beatrice d'Este, Princess of Modena. They had no children. In 1809, Francis attacked France again, hoping to take advantage of the Peninsular War embroiling Napoleon in Spain. He was again defeated, and this time forced to ally himself with Napoleon, ceding territory to the Empire, joining the Continental System, and wedding his daughter Marie-Louise to the Emperor. Francis essentially became a vassal of the Emperor of the French. The Napoleonic wars drastically weakened Austria and threatened its preeminence among the states of Germany, a position that it would eventually cede to the Kingdom of Prussia.
In 1813, for the fourth and final time, Austria turned against France and joined Great Britain, Russia, Prussia and Sweden in their war against Napoleon. Austria played a major role in the final defeat of France—in recognition of this, Francis, represented by Clemens von Metternich, presided over the Congress of Vienna, helping to form the Concert of Europe and the Holy Alliance, ushering in an era of conservatism and reactionism in Europe. The German Confederation, a loose association of Central European states was created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire. The Congress was a personal triumph for Francis, where he hosted the assorted dignitaries in comfort, though Francis undermined his allies Tsar Alexander and Frederick William III of Prussia by negotiating a secret treaty with the restored French king Louis XVIII. The federal Diet met at Frankfurt under Austrian presidency, the Habsburg Emperor was represented by an Austrian 'presidential envoy'.[Image: Francis+II.jpg] Francis II
by Johann Peter Krafft Francis presented himself as an open and approachable monarch, he regularly set aside two mornings each week to meet his imperial subjects, regardless of status, by appointment in his office, even speaking to them in their own language, but his will was sovereign. In 1804, he had no compunction about announcing that through his authority as Holy Roman Emperor, he declared he was now Emperor of Austria. Two years later, Francis personally wound up the moribund Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. Both actions were of dubious constitutional legality. After 1806 he used the titles: "We, Francis the First, by the grace of God Emperor of Austria; King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, Würzburg, Franconia, Styria, Carinthia and Carniola; Grand Duke of Cracow; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Sandomir, Masovia, Lublin, Upper and Lower Silesia, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen and Friule; Prince of Berchtesgaden and Mergentheim; Princely Count of Habsburg, Gorizia and Gradisca and of the Tyrol; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and in Istria".On 29 October, 1816, Francis got married for the fourth and last time to Karoline Charlotte Auguste of Bavaria (8 February, 1792 – 9 February, 1873). She was daughter of Maximilian I of Bavaria and had been previously married to William I of Württemberg. They had no children.

[Image: Francis+II.jpg]
by Friedrich von Amerling
1832Francis was a devoted family man, and a main point in the political testament he left for his son and heir Ferdinand was "Preserve unity in the family and regard it as one of the highest goods". On 2 March, 1835, 43 years and a day after his father's death, Francis died in Vienna of a sudden fever aged 67, in the presence of many of his family and with all the religious comforts. His funeral was magnificent, with his Viennese subjects respectfully filing past his coffin in St. Stephen's Cathedral for three days. Francis was interred in the traditional resting place of Habsburg monarchs, the Kapuziner Imperial Crypt in Vienna's Neue Markt Square. He is buried in tomb number 57, surrounded by his four wives.

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#2
Oh, the once great Habsburg dynasty. It's a tragedy Napoleon ended the Holy Roman Empire, it could have been a useful weapon for the Papacy against laicism, socialism and the Masonry in the late 19th and early 20th century.

By the way, how are the deceased Emperor's relatives faring today?
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#3
Bonifacio Wrote:Oh, the once great Habsburg dynasty. It's a tragedy Napoleon ended the Holy Roman Empire, it could have been a useful weapon for the Papacy against laicism, socialism and the Masonry in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Possible, but also possibly the opposite. Francis's predecessor, Joseph II, was one of the greatest proponents of "laicism, socialism and the Masonry" in the years that led to the French Revolution.

THE DOMINICANS: A Short History, by William A. Hinnebusch, O.P., D.Ph. (Oxon.) Wrote:Joseph II, co-Regent with his mother, Marie Theresa, began to pursue Gallican policies in the hereditary dominions of the Habsburgs in 1765. He promulgated comprehensive regulations which forbade recourse to Rome without imperial permission, and publication of pastorals and other documents without the approval of the royal censor. He also suppressed contemplative Orders and monasteries and Third Orders. The number of monasteries in Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia dropped from 915 to 318. Joseph closed houses of studies and seminaries and substituted several general seminaries staffed by liberal professors. He seized church property, putting the assets into a general fund for the support of religion. His liturgical and devotional directives prohibited ancient devotions such as the Stations of the Cross and the Rosary, and even prescribed the number of candles to be burned during services. Not for nothing has Joseph been called the "Sacristan Emperor". The link thus broken with Rome was not completely reforged until 1852. The prince-bishops of Germany, especially the Archbishop of Cologne, Joseph's brother, Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, another brother, the Republic of Venice, and kings in Spain, Sardinia, and Naples aped the Emperor. Fortunate the Orders that escaped the fate of the Jesuits, suppressed in 1773 by Clement XIV under intolerable pressure from the "enlightened despots". Philip Hughes closed his description of these events with this paragraph: "It is not hard to understand the French historian who writes: `God now saved the Church by sending the French Revolution to destroy princely absolutism.' Certainly by 1790, outside the States of the Church and the new United States of America, there was not a single country in the world where the Catholic religion was free to live its own life fully, and not a single Catholic country where there seemed any prospect but of further enslavement and gradual emasculation."
How ironic.



Bonifacio Wrote:By the way, how are the deceased Emperor's relatives faring today?
Otto von Habsburg, son of Blessed Charles I of Austria, was head of the House of Habsburg until he apparently gave that title to his son in 2007. He has done good deeds for the Church, but I believe most trads would be suspicious of his support of the European Union among other things.
His son, Karl Habsburg-Lothringen, hosted the TV game show Who-is-Who.

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#4
Wasn't Joseph II the Patron of Mozart?
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#5
Robb Wrote:Wasn't Joseph II the Patron of Mozart?

Sorta. He commissioned Mozart to compose "The Abduction from the Seraglio", which is dramatized in the movie Amadeus. That production was noted for being in the vernacular (German). Later on, he was hired as the Emperor's chamber composer.
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#6
The_Harlequin_King Wrote:Otto von Habsburg, son of Blessed Charles I of Austria, was head of the House of Habsburg until he apparently gave that title to his son in 2007. He has done good deeds for the Church, but I believe most trads would be suspicious of his support of the European Union among other things.His son, Karl Habsburg-Lothringen, hosted the TV game show Who-is-Who.

Do not think that the House of Habsburg will be restored. I side with Dante on the House of Habsburg it has outlived it's usefulness.

"The one who sits highest and wears the look

          Of having failed to do what he should have done

          And neglects to move his lips with others singing

"Was Rudolph the Emperor, who could have cured

          The wounds that meant the death of Italy:

          Though someone else should help, it is too late.


Restoration of the Habsburg Monarchy is prohibited by:
1.The Austrian Peace Treaty Vienna May 15, 1955 (The 515 Treaty)
2. Treaty between the United States and Austria, signed on August 24, 1921
 

Art thou he that art to come, or look we for another?

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#7
warning Wrote:Do not think that the House of Habsburg will be restored. I side with Dante on the House of Habsburg it has outlived it's usefulness.

"The one who sits highest and wears the look

          Of having failed to do what he should have done

          And neglects to move his lips with others singing

"Was Rudolph the Emperor, who could have cured

          The wounds that meant the death of Italy:

          Though someone else should help, it is too late.


Restoration of the Habsburg Monarchy is prohibited by:

1.The Austrian Peace Treaty Vienna May 15, 1955 (The 515 Treaty)
2. Treaty between the United States and Austria, signed on August 24, 1921
 

Art thou he that art to come, or look we for another?


If the Empire is restored, I'd like to see it return to its original status as an elective monarchy, rather than a hereditary one (just like the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). There is no point in having electors if every Emperor is going to be a Habsburg, anyway. And furthermore, the Emperor ought to actually be crowned in Rome, not just be an "Emperor-elect".
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#8
How was the Holy Roman Empire dissolved in the first place (by Napoleon I know).  How then was the Austro Hungarian empire formed?  Was their ever a time when the Austrian empire existed on it's own without Germany or Hungary?

Why did the USA make the dissolution of the  empire term for peace?  What would happen if Austria attempted to restore it's monarchy in some fashion? 

Bob
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#9
I don't want to derail the thread, but if someone could give me the reasoning in one of their posts as the discussion carries on, why are so many traditional Catholics also monarchists?
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#10
Quote:How was the Holy Roman Empire dissolved in the first place (by Napoleon I know).

Napoleon was advancing, and to save his title Francis II abdicated, dissolved the Empire (as if he could really do that), and kept his Imperial title, however, in the Austrian/Austro-Hungarian Empire.

During the 19th century, there were a proliferation of "Empires". England was restrained enough to not make the pretense claiming their throne was imperial (though still were King-Emperors through their control of the Indian imperial throne)...but generally, I think we can say that the Napoleons were the Western Emperor, de facto at least, during the time they ruled. France, as the younger daughter of Charlemagne, as it were, had always been jealous of the German imperial status (and, it could be argued, were the second-in-line to that claim). After the Napoleons, however, it seems to have devolved back to the Hapsburgs in Austria. The "German Empire" under Bismarck was not really; or perhaps the competing empires in France, Germany, and Austria-Hungary, represents a sort of split crown that must be rejoined to really get Christendom back.
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