Orthodoxy and Trinity
#11
Without getting too controversial, the point that the Roman Church tried to make was to point out the necessary relational distinction between the Son and the Holy Ghost.

Keep these three fundamental tenets in mind:

1) The essential distinction that makes each Person of the Blessed Trinity distinct is relational, which is a distinction that deals mostly with the mode of procession (e.g. x proceeds from y).

2) The Second Person of the Blessed Trinity is essentially the manifestation of God's infinite and perfect intellectual act; the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity is likewise the manifestation of God's infinite and perfect charitable act [act of love].

3) The Son of God the Father, as the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity made man, proceeds from God the Father independently of God the Holy Ghost.

The Orthodox presentation of the teaching results in a lack of any essential distinction between God the Son and God the Holy Ghost; both proceed from God the Father independently of the other such that both are relatively and relationally identical to the Father.

But if the distinction between the Persons is essentially relational, yet the Second and Third Persons are both relationally identical to the Father, there are only two distinct Persons of the Trinity, which utterly destroys the rationally and non-contradictory nature of the dogma.

Hence, the Roman Church teaches that a relational distinction between the Father-to-Son relationship and Father-to-Spirit relationship is necessary to distinguish the Person of the Son from the Person of the Spirit relative to the Father.

Therefore, the "filioque" phrase was used to designate the procession of the Spirit from the Father through the Son in a way that makes the spiration of the Spirit a consequence (as it were) of the procession of the Son from the Father.

Conclusively, since love proceeds from knowledge, we can understand why Scholastic theologians support the idea that the Son proceeds from the Father as a manifestation of the intellectual act of God. The procession of the Spirit from the Father through the Son is, therefore, a manifestation of the reciprocal and mutual exchange of love between the Father and the Son predicated upon their perfect knowledge of each other. 
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