Born Again, All Over Again
#1

Prepare to weep. From religionandpolitics.org, my emphasis in bold:



Born Again, All Over Again
By Emily Alhadeff | August 4, 2015


It all started with a question. On what day did Jesus die?

Which led to more questions. Who wrote the Gospels? Is the English translation of the Bible accurate? What is the truth?

“It just started falling apart,” says Gillah Palumbo. Deeply affected by a church trip to Israel, Gillah and her husband Mark grew curious about Jesus’ world. Upon return to their Seattle-area home they got involved in the Hebrew Roots movement, which infuses evangelical Christianity with Hebrew Bible literacy. But as time went on, their Christian faith continued to erode. Ten years after meeting each other at their Pentecostal church, Gillah and Mark completed an Orthodox conversion to Judaism.

The Palumbos are not alone. While statistics are hard to come by, growing numbers of evangelical Christians are leaning toward Jewish theology and practice. Most settle in messianic churches or with the Hebrew Roots movement, which are Christ-centered. But there is also a small, possibly growing number of evangelical Christians who, at the end of their exploring, become Jews. Restlessly pursuing truth, these seekers gather in Facebook groups and download Jewish informational and spiritual videos on YouTube by the thousands. Rabbi Michael Skobac, the education director of Jews for Judaism’s Toronto office, recalls a decade ago receiving one or two calls a month from curious Christians who’d come across his literature or videos. Now Skobac receives, on average, one call a day. “I wouldn’t feel comfortable saying this if I didn’t hear the same thing from my colleagues,” Skobac confesses. “There’s something going on.”

BY THE 1960s, two thousand years of Christian antipathy to Judaism was wiping off the ashes of the Holocaust, and Israel’s victory over the Arabs in 1967 was viewed as nothing short of miraculous. Christian Zionism was spreading along with premillennial dispensationalist hopes for the messianic era. Supercessionist theology was partly replaced with the idea that God’s covenant with the People of Israel was still binding. At the same time, the breakdown of the age-old Jewish-Christian divide made way for Jewish converts to Christianity and, in an effort to hasten the Christ’s return, missionary attempts got a twentieth-century makeover.

Vox Wrote:
I get so sick of hearing about how that 1967 war was "miraculous." They had all the money in the world; why wouldn't they win?

In 1973 Moishe Rosen, a Jew turned Baptist minister, launched the most famous of the missionary organizations, Jews for Jesus, which states its goal as “to make the messiahship of Jesus an unavoidable issue to our Jewish people worldwide.” In a revolutionary move, Jews for Jesus invited Jews to Christianity without divorcing their Judaism. To the horror of the Jewish community—which typically regards Christian interest in converting Jews as amusing at best—the new strategy took hold. According to the Jews for Jesus website, somewhere between 30,000 and 125,000 people subscribe to the syncretic new faith worldwide.

“What happens next is what no one expects,” says Rabbi Tovia Singer, director of Outreach Judaism, a Jewish counter-missionary organization. “Christians were going, ‘Perfect! We love everything Jewish. We want to get back to the Jewish origins of our faith. We want to call him Yeshua instead of that Greek ‘Jesus’ thing.’ It became a magnet for Christians who were looking to infuse their Christianity with something more authentic.”

Vox Wrote:They oughta listen to this:  http://www.ewtn.com/vondemand/audio/reso...000609.mp3

What became known as the messianic Jewish movement began attracting more Christians than Jews, drawing heavily from evangelical churches. For many evangelicals, an interest in the early church—formed by Jesus, a Jew, and his Jewish followers—drew them in. Hillary Kaell, a professor of religion at Concordia University in Montreal who has written about messianic Judaism, estimates that 70 percent of attendees at messianic congregations are Christians. “The search for Biblical truth or proper translation is very much usually what brings people out of these charismatic churches,” Kaell explains.

Vox Wrote:
So, they see the obvious problem with sola scriptura, but instead of looking toward the Church, they look to --- the Pharisees? Um, OK.

“Many non-Jews who became interested in the Jewish roots of their faith became drawn to [Judaism],” Skobac says. “They have the impression that Jesus would be more comfortable in a messianic synagogue than a Baptist church. It’s part of this quest to find out what was going on 2,000 years ago.”

Vox Wrote:
Nevermind the Church Fathers.

Messianic congregations may or may not actively proselytize to Jews. But realizing the threat of Jews for Jesus, by the 1980s the organized Jewish community launched counter-missionary organizations like Jews for Judaism to empower Jews in their own beliefs. (Jews for Judaism’s executive director in Canada, Julius Ciss, was involved in the messianic movement before returning to mainstream Judaism.) Now, in a doubly ironic twist, the anti-missionary materials put out by Jews—the readings and online resources that promote Judaism—are attracting the interest of Christians. The very materials meant to be a bulwark against groups like Jews for Jesus have become one of the conduits for Christians to convert to Judaism.

WHEN MARK PALUMBO suggested they join their Pentecostal pastor’s church trip to Israel in 2007, Gillah shrugged off the idea. “Why Israel?” she wondered. “I think we can see the Bible in 3-D!” was Mark’s reply. To both of their surprise, the connection to the land was so strong that returning to Washington felt like leaving home. “We were never the same,” Gillah says. “We were sojourners back in the U.S.”

The Palumbos joined a small group of Christians studying Jewish scriptures. It was the first they’d ever heard of the Israelite feasts and other practices that affected Jesus’ life and form the basis of Jewish life today. What started as a study group of 50 to 75 people grew in 10 years to El Shaddai Ministries, a Hebrew Roots church led by Pastor Mark Biltz in Tacoma, Washington. On average, 600 people turn out for El Shaddai’s Saturday services, but according to El Shaddai’s webmaster, the streamed sermons receive around 10,000 hits a week from viewers around the world, not including the YouTube videos, which in a month’s time bring in some 47,000 more views.

But the Palumbos weren’t satisfied. Then they discovered “Let’s Get Biblical,” Rabbi Singer’s 24-part audio series directed to Jews that comprehensively dismantles Christian claims. Thirsty for knowledge, they drove around the Olympic Peninsula for eight hours listening and discussing his points. When they finished, they pointed the car toward eastern Washington and did it again. When Rabbi Skobac came to Seattle for a weekend in 2013, they and six friends met with him to discuss the options for living more Jewish lives. Skobac encouraged them to look into the Noachide movement—the diffuse movement of non-Jews committing to the seven Noachide laws—but that didn’t feel like enough. They wanted to talk about conversion.

Vox Wrote:The Noachide Laws, which, in essence, make the veritable worship of Jews the law, which punish "idolators" (Christians" by beheading. Nice!

Conversion to Judaism through the Orthodox movement is a notoriously grueling process that involves first getting accepted as potential converts, followed by a crushing literary review, oral exams, and drastic lifestyle changes, including: moving to a Jewish community, swearing off non-kosher food, observing Shabbat and myriad holidays, sometimes changing names and dress, and often losing an entire network of friends and even family. Gillah, who changed her name from Jill, says she sent an email out to every rabbi in the Seattle-Tacoma area expressing her interest to convert. Only one responded. “If he hadn’t replied, we’d still be out there,” she says wearily.

The Palumbos had just finished renovating their dream home when they learned that to become Jews, they had to move within the geographic parameters of the Orthodox Jewish community in Seattle. “We had just put $100,000 into our house,” recalls Mark, who also goes by Moshe. “You’re telling me we’re going to move?”

It’s no wonder their friends who were also interested in conversion fell away. “It’s a real financial hardship,” Mark says. They now live in a squat brick house on a small lot worth twice as much as their large home outside the city. He estimates the transition to a Jewish life cost them $250,000. “Our friends bowed out because they couldn’t handle it,” Mark says.

Rabbis, Singer says, are not usually prepared to deal with Christians, and they are ill equipped for large-scale conversions. That’s why so many Christians come to him — including a group of Koreans who had called him the morning we spoke. “If Judaism would make it easier to convert, they would smash the doors down,” he says. “The only reason they’re not is because the rabbis are saying this is a long process.”

For those Christians who don’t go through with conversion, some remain in their former tradition, some end up as Noachides, some continue searching, and others fall away completely. A small number of seekers are also drawn to the Karaite movement, an ancient Jewish community that adheres to the literal Torah but not the rabbinic tradition. Since 2007 a small American Karaite community in the Bay Area has converted some 70 people—many of whom are former Christians.

MUCH OF THE fluidity of individuals moving between Christianity and Judaism is due to the Internet and social media, and during the spiritual search, the Internet often stands in for community when individuals have nowhere to express their struggles. Aprill Nefores is the founder of the public Facebook group “Leaving Christianity and Finding the Truth,” as well as a private group for individuals not ready to expose their doubts. In December 2014 the former Baptist appeared on the Israeli radio program “A Light to the Nations,” hosted by Ira Michaelson and former evangelical pastor Rod Bryant (now also known as Reuven Dovid, who co-runs the outreach organization Netiv). When Nefores began questioning the tenets of her faith, she felt her pastor wasn’t able to answer her questions adequately. “The answer was always the same: you need to go on faith,” she said in the interview.

Nefores began studying with a friend coming out of the messianic movement, and describes her journey in strikingly hybrid Christian-Jewish language. “She and I came out of idolatry together, baruch Hashem [thank God],” she told her interviewers. “I could no longer go back to my church. Every time I drove by one it was just graven images and idols. I felt ill going by them.”

Vox Wrote:
She'd better not read about what that old Temple looked like then. She might need a fainting couch:



Lonely and confused, Nefores figured others might be going through the same thing. So she launched her Facebook groups. Both have around 1,000 members now. “It’s absolutely mind-blowing,” she said on the radio. “I can’t keep up with how fast it is growing.”

Nefores also discovered Jewish lineage she didn’t know she had. Her father was Jewish, but only in her own spiritual quest did she discover her maternal grandmother was, too, which precluded her from conversion. (Judaism traces lineage through the maternal line.) “It’s like being born again, again, but for real this time,” she said.

Discovery of Jewish roots is a common part of the self-discovery narrative and can take a number of forms, says Kaell: actual discovery of a Jewish relative, a hunch that a grandparent was hiding his or her Jewishness, a suspicion that one’s family is descended from converted Jews, or simply the sense of a “divine Jewish spark” from within. Whether or not the claims are proven true or simply deduced, finding Jewish heritage can validate a Christian’s interest in Judaism, and it can serve as a “born again” moment—as a Jew. “The [evangelical] Christian idea is a sudden discovery of self, where one’s true self is there, but you need that moment of recognition to know it’s there,” says Kaell.

Gillah Palumbo was adopted and does not know her biological origins, and Mark hasn’t found evidence of Jewish roots in his family. But something strange happened on their third trip to Israel. At the Holocaust museum Yad Vashem, they found the name Palumbo on a list of victims from the island of Rhodes. “That struck me hard,” Mark says. He sports a fading eagle tattoo on his right forearm and admits his only friends since leaving Christianity are his old biker buddies. He doesn’t like to cry. But, he says, “There was a tear out of the old eye there.”

OUTREACH PROFESSIONALS like Skobac and Singer admit they never intended to be counseling Christians in crisis. To begin with, Judaism shuns proselytizing to non-Jews, focusing instead on bringing secular or lapsed Jews into the religious and cultural fold.

Vox Wrote:Maybe modern Judaism does, but Biblical Judaism was a proselytizing movement big time. From footnotes on the FE website:

Quote:For evidence that Judaism was a proselytizing religion, see the writings of Cicero, Horace, Juvenal, Seneca, Tacitus, Josephus, Epictetus, Dio Cassius, and the New Testament (ex., Matthew 23:15). More evidence of Jewish proselytism are the existence of the Ethiopian Jews, the conversion of the Khazar kingdom (whence Ashkenazi Jews come, according to some Historians), the forced conversions of the Idumeans conquered by the Jewish Maccabean Kings and of slaves owned by Jews, and rabbinical writings that indicate Marcus Aurelius and Nero were converts to Judaism. Other prominent converts include: Poppaea, the second wife of Nero; Aquila of Pontus; Consul Flavius Clemens, nephew of Roman Emperor Vespasian and his wife, Domitilla, the cousin of Titus; King Monobaz of Abiabene, his wife, Helena; and King Dhu Nuwas of Yemen. In the Roman Empire, proselytism was such a huge phenomenon, that Septimius Severus issued an edict forbidding conversion of Gentiles to Judaism.

According to the Talmud, Nero himself converted to post-Temple Judaism. Gittin 56a reads: "He [God] sent against them [Israel] Nero the Caesar. As Nero was coming he shot an arrow towards the east, and it fell in Jerusalem. He then shot one towards the west, and it again fell in Jerusalem. He shot toward all four points of the compass, and each time it fell in Jerusalem. He said to a certain boy, 'Repeat to me the last verse of Scripture that you have learned.' He said, ' I will wreak My vengeance on Edom through My people Israel.' Nero said, 'The Kadosh Barukh Hu [the Holy One] desires to lay waste His Temple and to lay the blame on me. So he ran away and converted to Judaism, and Rabbi Meir was descended from him.'"

“I have to confess, when I went into this work it was just to help Jewish people in the Jewish community,” says Skobac. “I never expected this to come out of it.”

Given his extra workload, Skobac speculates that in 20 years there could be full-time Jewish professionals devoted to incoming Christians. “It’s just the beginning,” he says. “We don’t know what’s going to happen.”

Singer, like his colleague Skobac, claims not to have any stakes in the game. His work, as he sees it, is altruistic. “Many of these people are losing their families, their friends won’t talk to them, their siblings cut them off,” he says. “They think I’m just being humble, but they gave up everything.”

Mark and Gillah Palumbo not only gave up their dream home, but they also lost most of their friends and some of their family. Gillah’s adult children think they’ve joined a cult. Their friends accused them of “crossing over” to Judaism, and their pastor didn’t lead trips to Israel for a number of years, for fear other parishioners would return a little too inspired. Yet as converts they say they haven’t been fully absorbed into their new community, either.

Vox Wrote:LOL

In spite of it all, the Palumbos say they wouldn’t change a thing. “We wouldn’t go back,” says Gillah. “Once you find the truth, how can you go back?”


Emily Alhadeff is a writer and editor in Seattle whose writing has appeared in Tablet, Moment, and The Times of Israel. She holds a Master of Theological Studies from Harvard Divinity School.

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#2
Interesting and tragic …

I am going to open my mouth here - even though I probably shouldn't, given how little I know regarding what I am about to say …

But from the standpoint of a Catholic convert, living in Europe, but who grew up in America, something has long stood out for me …

It is this: that American Protestantism often feels leaning in a Judaic direction to me, more oriented somehow to God the Father rather than Christ. I think of things like Jehovah's Witnesses, born in America, and similar things … and I think to myself this could only come from  America.

But I better shut up now. I hardly know what I'm talking about, never having studied the matter properly ...

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#3
These Evangelicals in this article would never even consider coming home to Rome, especially since Vatican Two. It numbs the mind to see this happen, but there we are.
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#4
(08-09-2015, 04:35 AM)Roger Buck Wrote: Interesting and tragic …

I am going to open my mouth here - even though I probably shouldn't, given how little I know regarding what I am about to say …

But from the standpoint of a Catholic convert, living in Europe, but who grew up in America, something has long stood out for me …

It is this: that American Protestantism often feels leaning in a Judaic direction to me, more oriented somehow to God the Father rather than Christ. I think of things like Jehovah's Witnesses, born in America, and similar things … and I think to myself this could only come from  America.

But I better shut up now. I hardly know what I'm talking about, never having studied the matter properly ...

qft
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#5
This is an interesting phenomenon, this matter of evangelicals basically rejecting Jesus Christ and becoming Jewish. I can only think that they have lost their faith. I imagine that Judaism can seem quite exotic and exciting when compared to much of evangelicalism, kind of like finding a solid tradition for the first time. 

Nothing wrong with wanting to learn a bit of Hebrew and some of the history and customs of first century Jews, but it's not necessary to leave Christ for Judaism.
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#6
This is entirely unsurprising if we look at this in terms of the sociological and demographic distribution of religious practice in America. Decisions like conversion rarely occur in a vacuum, a sincere question of theology, detached from the real world. Through history, the distinctive behaviours and values of an elite are regularly disseminated through a broader society, as they acquire prestige, and are imitated by those who seek social capital (consciously or not). We often see this at work in language, when certain behaviours, lexical items, and pronunciations become an index, or a sign, of education, wealth, or other dimensions of status. We often see this working most strongly in the reverse, through stigma; Southern accents are stigmatized as ignorant or stupid.

Unfortunately, Christianity in contemporary American society basically speaks with a Southern accent. Cultural outsiders, antagonistic to the traditional experience of European-derived peoples, have achieved, in the course of just a few generations, an elite status such that they have displaced much of the native "WASP" elite from the institutions that count. It is for this reason that we still hear constant brow-beating over the injustices committed by certain country clubs fifty years ago, or admissions caps at a few prestigious universities in the 1920s, while in the scheme of things, that hardly constituted oppression in a country where black men were being lynched and labor organizers killed by hired thugs.

The ramifications of this have been disastrous, since they do not see our history as their history, and they regard our great heroes, like Edward I of England, or Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, as villains of history. Their view of historic Christianity, which they denigrate constantly in organs of high- and low-culture alike, from the literary review to the boob-tube, from shock radio to the university, is one long pogrom. To this particular constituency within the elite, these outsiders-cum-insiders with a vendetta, the Church is not the Mother of All Believers; she is the Mother of the Dark Ages, the Mother of Persecution.

It is now taboo, even in the American Right, to speak about America's "Christian heritage," or even the American people as a historically "Christian nation." No, that is unacceptable. It must be Judeo-Christian, with an especial emphasis on Judeo-, although they constitute a mere 2 percent of the whole and only really arrived in considerable numbers in the first decades of the 20th Century.

Compare how invisible other ethnic groups are, with their own distinct practices and values, in light of this Judeo-Christian dishonesty. A full 17% of all Americans claim German ethnicity as their principal ethnic identity, yet do we hear about America's German heritage seven or eight times as much as we do the Jewish contribution, despite the far more extensive, deeper, and older contributions of Germans to the land and people? A full 11.6% claim Irish. 5.9% are Italian. 3% are Polish. 2.9% are French. Yet how often do we hear about America's Catholico-Protestant civilization or America's Hiberno-British or Teutono-British heritage?

Still, we are supposed to clap, mouth agape like morons, applauding how God has so especially blessed the Jews (most of whom do not even actively practice their religion) with such brains, such talents, such discipline that they can rise, head and shoulders over the rest. Jewish success, unlike Unitarian or Episcopalian or Korean or Filipino-American success, or any other wealthier and disproportionately successful group, is said to come down to their Jewishness per se, which ultimately consists entirely in having rejected the Incarnate God and the normative religion of the Jewish people, the Catholic Church. Jews who accepted Christ through the ages, and humbled themselves before Him, left the shtetl, intermarried, and lost their particularist identity as Jews, joining the universal brotherhood of men.

You cannot have a wealthy, assertive, proud, strongly-identifying elite without it having profound ramifications. Jewish power in America comes at the expense of a Judaization of the whole. We already schlep, schmooze, plotz, shvitz, dismiss bupkis, lift our shnoz, praise mavens, and circumcise our dear baby boys without a therapeutic indication. Passive cultural Judaism is our shtick as Americans, and the rest of the world can see it. It is little surprise that some dogs, trained to drink out of the toilet bowl, will move on to swallow the dreck.
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#7
Quote:Discovery of Jewish roots is a common part of the self-discovery narrative and can take a number of forms, says Kaell: actual discovery of a Jewish relative, a hunch that a grandparent was hiding his or her Jewishness, a suspicion that one’s family is descended from converted Jews, or simply the sense of a “divine Jewish spark” from within

LOL – how gnostic.

Frankly I find this kinda comic. Yes, its tragic, but its not like they were “safe” anyway.

Anyway, this sounds just like a fashion. The fact that the majority is scared off by the price of living in a small flat on a Jewish neighborhood (I wonder who sells or rent those) kinda gives away that they are just shopping for a religion (whatever happened to “if thou hadst desired sacrifice, I would indeed have given it”?). What BXVI called a religious titillation.

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#8
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,...68,00.html

At a conference dedicated to Harry Potter at Reading University in the United Kingdom, in 2005, a panel discussion was devoted to the question "Is Harry Potter Jewish"? Amy Miller, a cantor in a synagogue, presented a paper suggesting as much; her point was that, in addition to certain ambiguous textual cues that might suggest a possible Jewish origin, Harry Potter at the very least had a yidishe neshama, a Jewish soul, because "He is generous, kind, compassionate and a mensch."

Many Jews, following a mystical teaching that dates back no earlier than the Middle Ages, believe that anyone who converts to Judaism (and some who do not) must have a Jewish ancestor, or else were born with souls that were already Jewish, explaining how they are different (in a good way) from the goyim. The souls of future converts are even said to have been present at Mt. Sinai, along with all the rest of the Jews, when Moses revealed the Law.
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#9
(08-09-2015, 10:32 PM)Cyriacus Wrote: Compare how invisible other ethnic groups are, with their own distinct practices and values, in light of this Judeo-Christian dishonesty. A full 17% of all Americans claim German ethnicity as their principal ethnic identity, yet do we hear about America's German heritage seven or eight times as much as we do the Jewish contribution, despite the far more extensive, deeper, and older contributions of Germans to the land and people? A full 11.6% claim Irish. 5.9% are Italian. 3% are Polish. 2.9% are French. Yet how often do we hear about America's Catholico-Protestant civilization or America's Hiberno-British or Teutono-British heritage?

Still, we are supposed to clap, mouth agape like morons, applauding how God has so especially blessed the Jews (most of whom do not even actively practice their religion) with such brains, such talents, such discipline that they can rise, head and shoulders over the rest. Jewish success, unlike Unitarian or Episcopalian or Korean or Filipino-American success, or any other wealthier and disproportionately successful group, is said to come down to their Jewishness per se, which ultimately consists entirely in having rejected the Incarnate God and the normative religion of the Jewish people, the Catholic Church. Jews who accepted Christ through the ages, and humbled themselves before Him, left the shtetl, intermarried, and lost their particularist identity as Jews, joining the universal brotherhood of men.

You've nailed it to a huge degree. Judaism (that is, post-Temple Judaism, NOT the religion of the Old Testament by which Our Lord was raised) and the Jewish people are the new Messiah. The Holocaust was a sacred event about which not even a tiny detail can be questioned. It is the new "Crucifixion," with the State of Israel being the new "Resurrection." Any complaints, any questions, warrants the label of heretic anti-semite. Post-Temple Judaism, the Jewish reading of History (which is anti-History), and supporting the State of Israel constitute a new religion, plain and simple.

Another level to this is, I believe, the desire for people to feel rooted in History, connected to the past, to feel themselves as a part of a great story. We'd always had this as traditional Christians, but our patrimony has been stripped away from us by interpretations (at least) of Vatican II and the shaming of our History by those who own or control the channels of culture (the media, schools, universities, etc.) We've been almost thoroughly deracinated, torn away from our spiritual roots by lies and by weak leadership in our own institutions. We've been sold out and left floating in a sea of anomie.

So the weak-minded or ill-educated clamor to align themselves with the victors of the culture wars. By adopting religious customs and a community that isn't their own, they become a part of something bigger than they are, a part of a people with a History (anti-History) they (think they) can be proud of while simultaneously grabbing the brass ring of victim status.

Everyone on earth is "allowed" to cherish their cultures, their very ways of life, preserve them, and pass them down to their children. Everyone, that is, but European and European-derived people. Everyone is encouraged to hang on to their traditions and religions -- except for us. In the narrative "they" have come up with, we're the antagonist, and the drawing of the character lacks any subtlety whatsoever. Christians, Christianity, Christendom are B-A-D-, period, the end. We wear not just a black hat, but a dunce cap. Watch most any TV show or movie to see that.
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#10
Great article, Vox!

And Roger, of course what you are saying is correct. Esp. the Seventh day Adventist and the Mormons strike me as being Jew-ish. And some of the Baptist obsessions with the physical object of the Bible remind me of how Ortho Jews wear pieces of scripture on their bodies. One of the memories that stays with me, from the a conversation of adults at Baptist church camp where I went when I was a kid, was a conversation about a woman who literally went into hysterics if she couldn't sleep with a Bible pressed to her heart at night. (Or something similar to that.) For the Baptists discussing this case, even they thought that was a tad extreme.

It's because there is a uncanny resemblance between the idea of 'the chosen people' and pre-destination. With the latter, you can't know, with the former you do, and hey, why wouldn't want to be in the club of the elite, if there really was one? I applaud these people for leaving the farce of Protestantism behind and exposing it for what it really is. Sadly, the timing is horrible, as the Catholic Church no longer converts people anymore. In fact, that must be related to this. Guess what Jew-Prots, you do have idols! You make idols of the Bible, and of your old bearded G-d! People think I'm being extreme when I say things like that, but this article proves me right.
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