What's This Philosophy Known As ?
#1
The belief that mankind is constantly improving through higher learning and all the world's evils will eventually be overcome through knowledge. I thought it was called Upward Development, but can't find anything online. I know someone will say Gnosticism, but I remember a longer name.
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#2
I think it is the philosophy of the Enlightenment itself. From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:

Quote:The faith of the Enlightenment – if one may call it that – is that the process of enlightenment, of becoming progressively self-directed in thought and action through the awakening of one’s intellectual powers, leads ultimately to a better, more fulfilled human existence.

Kant also defined the Enlightenment in that way in his essay "What is Enlightenment?" (http://www.columbia.edu/acis/ets/CCREAD/etscc/kant.html):

Quote:I have emphasized the main point of the enlightenment--man's emergence from his self-imposed nonage--primarily in religious matters, because our rulers have no interest in playing the guardian to their subjects in the arts and sciences. Above all, nonage in religion is not only the most harmful but the most dishonorable.

The postmodern philosopher Jean-Francois Lyotard in his classic work The Postmodern Condition identifies the characteristics of modernity (Enlightenment) as belief in two foundational metanarratives: 1. history as progressing towards social enlightenment and emancipation, and 2. knowledge as progressing towards totalization. He defines postmodernity as skepticism towards all metanarratives.
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#3
Thank you, that was a very good explanation. I still remember a different name I heard used a few times.
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