Hear ye another
parable. There was a man an householder, who planted a vineyard, and made
a hedge round about it, and dug in it a press, and built a tower, and let
it out to husbandmen; and went into a strange country. And when the time
of the fruits drew nigh, he sent his servants to the husbandmen that they
might receive the fruits thereof. And the husbandmen laying hands on his
servants, beat one, and killed another, and stoned another.
Again he sent other servants more than the former; and they did to them in
like manner. And last of all he sent to them his son, saying: They will reverence
my son. But the husbandmen seeing the son, said among themselves: This is
the heir: come, let us kill him, and we shall have his inheritance. And taking
him, they cast him forth out of the vineyard, and killed him. When therefore
the lord of the vineyard shall come, what will he do to those husbandmen?
They say to him: He will bring those evil men to an evil end; and will let
out his vineyard to other husbandmen, that shall render him the fruit in
due season. Jesus saith to them: Have you never read in the Scriptures: The
stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner?
By the Lord this has been done; and it is wonderful in our eyes. Therefore
I say to you, that the kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and shall
be given to a nation yielding the fruits thereof. And whosoever shall fall
on this stone, shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it shall
grind him to powder. And when the chief priests and Pharisees had heard his
parables, they knew that he spoke of them.
And seeking to lay hands on him, they feared the multitudes: because they
held him as a prophet.
And he began to
speak to them in parables: A certain man planted a vineyard and made a hedge
about it, and dug a place for the winefat, and built a tower, and let it
to husbandmen; and went into a far country. And at the season he sent to
the husbandmen a servant to receive of the husbandmen of the fruit of the
vineyard. Who having laid hands on him, beat him, and sent him away empty.
And again he sent to them another servant; and him they wounded in the head,
and used him reproachfully. And again he sent another, and him they killed:
and many others, of whom some they beat, and others they killed.
Therefore having yet one son, most dear to him; he also sent him unto them
last of all, saying: They will reverence my son. But the husbandmen said
one to another: This is the heir; come let us kill him; and the inheritance
shall be ours. And laying hold on him, they killed him, and cast him out
of the vineyard. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do? He will
come and destroy those husbandmen; and will give the vineyard to others.
And have you not read this scripture, The stone which the builders rejected,
the same is made the head of the corner:
By the Lord has this been done, and it is wonderful in our eyes. And they
sought to lay hands on him, but they feared the people. For they knew that
he spoke this parable to them. And leaving him, they went their way.
And he began to
speak to the people this parable: A certain man planted a vineyard, and let
it out to husbandmen: and he was abroad for a long time. And at the season
he sent a servant to the husbandmen, that they should give him of the fruit
of the vineyard. Who, beating him, sent him away empty.
And again he sent another servant. But they beat him also, and treating him
reproachfully, sent him away empty. And again he sent the third: and they
wounded him also, and cast him out. Then the lord of the vineyard said: What
shall I do? I will send my beloved son: it may be, when they see him, they
will reverence him. Whom when the husbandmen saw, they thought within themselves,
saying: This is the heir, let us kill him, that the inheritance may be ours.
So casting him out of the vineyard, they killed him. What therefore will
the lord of the vineyard do to them?
He will come, and will destroy these husbandmen, and will give the vineyard
to others. Which they hearing, said to him: God forbid. But he looking on
them, said: What is this then that is written, The stone, which the builders
rejected, the same is become the head of the corner? Whosoever shall fall
upon that stone, shall be bruised: and upon whomsoever it shall fall, it
will grind him to powder. And the chief priests and the scribes sought to
lay hands on him the same hour: but they feared the people, for they knew
that he spoke this parable to them. And being upon the watch, they sent spies,
who should feign themselves just, that they might take hold of him in his
words, that they might deliver him up to the authority and power of the governor.
By St. John Chryostom
Many things doth
He intimate by this parable, God's providence, which had been exercised towards
them from the first; their murderous disposition from the beginning; that
nothing had been omitted of whatever pertained to a heedful care of them;
that even when prophets had been slain, He had not turned away from them,
but had sent His very Son; that the God both of the New and of the Old Testament
was one and the same; that His death should effect great blessings; that
they were to endure extreme punishment for the crucifixion, and their crime;
the calling of the Gentiles, the casting out of the Jews.
Therefore He putteth it after the former parable, that He may show even hereby
the charge to be greater, and highly unpardonable. How, and in what way?
That although they met with so much care, they were worse than harlots and
publicans, and by so much.
And observe also both His great care, and the excessive idleness of these
men. For what pertained to the husbandmen, He Himself did, the hedging it
round about, the planting the vineyard, and all the rest, and He left little
for them to do; to take care of what was there, and to preserve what was
given to them. For nothing was left undone, but all accomplished; and not
even so did they gain, and this, when they had enjoyed such great blessings
from Him. For when they had come forth out of Egypt, He gave a law, and set
up a city, and built a temple, and prepared an altar.
"And went into a far country;" that He bore long with them, not always bringing
the punishments close upon their sins; for by His going into a far country,
He means His great long-suffering.
And "He sent His servants," that is, the prophets, "to receive the fruit;"
that is, their obedience, the proof of it by their works. But they even here
showed their wickedness, not only by failing to give the fruit, after having
enjoyed so much care, which was the sign of idleness, but also by showing
anger towards them that came. For they that had not to give when they owed,
should not have been indignant, nor angry, but should have entreated. But
they not only were indignant, but even filled their hands with blood, and
while deserving punishment, themselves inflicted punishment.
Therefore He sent both a second, and a third company, both that the wickedness
of these might be shown, and the love towards man of Him who sent them.
And wherefore sent He not His Son immediately? In order that they might condemn
themselves for the things done to the others, and leave off their wrath,
and reverence Him when He came. There are also other reasons, but for the
present let us go on to what is next. But what means, "It may be they will
reverence?" It is not the language of one ignorant, away with the thought!
but of one desiring to show the sin to be great; and without any excuse.
Since Himself knowing that they would slay Him, He sent Him. But He saith,
"They will reverence," declaring what ought to have been done, that it was
their duty to have reverenced Him. Since elsewhere also He saith, "if perchance
they will hear;"not in this case either being ignorant, but lest any of the
obstinate should say, that His prediction was the thing that necessitated
their disobedience, therefore He frames His expressions in this way, saying,
"Whether they will," and, "It may be." For though they had been obstinate
towards His servants, yet ought they to have reverenced the dignity of the
What then do these? When they ought to have run unto Him, when they ought
to have asked pardon for their offenses, they even persist more strongly
in their former sins, they proceed to add unto their pollutions, forever
throwing into the shade their former offenses by their later; as also He
Himself declared when He said, "Fill ye up the measure of your fathers."For
from the first the prophets used to charge them with these things, saying,
"Your hands are full of blood;"and, "They mingle blood with blood;"and, "They
build up Sion with blood."
But they did not learn self-restraint, albeit they received this commandment
first, "Thou shalt not kill;" and had been commanded to abstain from countless
other things because of this, and by many and various means urged to the
keeping of this commandment.
Yet, for all that, they put not away that evil custom; but what say they,
when they saw Him? Come, let us kill Him. With what motive, and for what
reason? what of any kind had they to lay to His charge, either small or great?
Is it that He honored you, and being God became man for your sakes, and wrought
His countless miracles? or that He pardoned your sins? or that He called
you unto a kingdom?
But see together with their impiety great was their folly, and the reason
of His murder was full of much madness. "For let us kill Him," it is said,
"and the inheritance shall be ours."
And where do they take counsel to kill Him? "Out of the vineyard."
2. Seest thou how He prophesies even the place where He was to be slain.
"And they cast Him out, and slew Him." And Luke indeed saith, that He declared
what these men should suffer; and they said, "God forbid;" and He added the
testimony [of Scripture]. For "He beheld them, and said, What is it then
that is written? The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become
the head of the corner; and every; one that falleth upon it shall be broken."But
Matthew, that they themselves delivered the sentence. But this is not a
contradiction. For indeed both things were done, both themselves passed the
sentence against themselves; and again, when they perceived what they had
said, they added, "God forbid;" and He set up the prophet against them,
persuading them that certainly this would be.
Nevertheless, not even so did He plainly reveal the Gentiles, that He might
afford them no handle, but signified it darkly by saying, "He will give the
vineyard to others." For this purpose then did He speak by a parable, that
themselves might pass the sentence, which was done in the case of David also,
when He passed judgment on the parable of Nathan. But do thou mark, I pray
thee, even hereby how just is the sentence, when the very persons that are
to be punished condemn themselves.
Then that they might learn that not only the nature of justice requires these
things, but even from the beginning the grace of the Spirit had foretold
them, and God had so decreed, He both added a prophecy, and reproves them
in a way to put them to shame, saying, "Did ye never read, The stone which
the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner? this is
the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes;" by all things showing,
that they should be cast out for unbelief, and the Gentiles brought in. This
He darkly intimated by the Canaanitish woman also; this again by the ass,
and by the centurion, and by many other parables; this also now.
Wherefore He added too, "This is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in
our eyes," declaring beforehand that the believing Gentiles, and as many
of the Jews as should also themselves believe, shall be one, although the
difference between them had been so great before.
Then, that they might learn that nothing was opposed to God's will of the
things doing, but that the event was even highly acceptable, and beyond
expectation, and amazing every one of the beholders (for indeed the miracle
was far beyond words), He added and said, "It is the Lord's doing." And by
the stone He means Himself, and by builders the teachers of the Jews; as
Ezekiel also saith, "They that build the wall, and daub it with untempered
mortar."But how did they reject Him? By saying, "This man is not of God;This
man deceiveth the people;"and again, "Thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil."
Then, that they might know that the penalty is not limited to their being
cast out, He added the punishments also, saying, "Every one that falleth
on this stone, shall be broken; but upon whomsoever it shall fall, it shall
grind him to powder."He speaks here of two ways of destruction, one from
stumbling and being offended; for this is, "Whosoever falleth on this stone:"
but another from their capture, and calamity, and utter destruction, which
also He clearly foretold, saying, "It will grind him to powder." By these
words He darkly intimated His own resurrection also.
1 Our Lord references Psalm 117, verse 22 in this
parable. It reads: "The stone which the builders rejected; the same is become
the head of the corner."