he proposed unto them, saying: The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of
mustard seed, which a man took and sowed in his field. Which is the least
indeed of all seeds; but when it is grown up, it is greater than all herbs,
and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come, and dwell in the
Another parable he spoke to them: The kingdom of heaven is like to leaven,
which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, until the whole was
leavened. All these things Jesus spoke in parables to the multitudes: and
without parables he did not speak to them. That it might be fulfilled which
was spoken by the prophet, saying: I will open my mouth in parables, I will
utter things hidden from the foundation of the world.
And he said: To
what shall we liken the kingdom of God? or to what parable shall we compare
it? It is as a grain of mustard seed: which when it is sown in the earth,
is less than all the seeds that are in the earth: And when it is sown, it
groweth up, and becometh greater than all herbs, and shooteth out great branches,
so that the birds of the air may dwell under the shadow thereof. And with
many such parables, he spoke to them the word, according as they were able
to hear. And without parable he did not speak unto them; but apart, he explained
all things to his disciples.
He said therefore:
To what is the kingdom of God like, and whereunto shall I resemble it? It
is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took and cast into his garden,
and it grew and became a great tree, and the birds of the air lodged in the
And again he said: Whereunto shall I esteem the kingdom of God to be like?
It is like to leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal,
till the whole was leavened.
By St. Augustine
"The three measures
of meal" of which the Lord spake, is the human race. Recollect the deluge;
three only remained, from whom the rest were to be re-peopled. Noe had three
sons, by them was repaired the human race. That holy "woman who hid the leaven,"
Lo, the whole world crieth out in the Church of God, "I know that the Lord
is great." Yet doubtless there are but few who are saved. Ye remember a question
which was lately set before us out of the Gospel, "Lord," it was said, "are
there few that be saved?"
What said the Lord to this? He did not say, "Not few, but many are they who
are saved." He did not say this. But what said He, when He had heard, "Are
there few that be saved? Strive to enter by the strait gate." When thou hearest
then, "Are there few that be saved?" the Lord confirmed what He heard. Through
the "strait gate" but "few" can "enter."
In another place He saith Himself, "Strait and narrow is the way which leadeth
unto life, and few there be that go thereby: but broad and spacious is the
way that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which walk thereby." Why
rejoice we in great numbers? Give ear to me, ye "few." I know that ye are
"many," who hear me, yet but "few" of you hear to obey. I see the floor,
I look for the corn. And hardly is the corn seen, when the floor is being
threshed; but the time is coming, that it shall be winnowed. But few then
are saved m comparison of the many that shall perish. For these same "few"
will constitute in themselves a great mass. When the Winnower shall come
with His fan in His Hand, "He will cleanse His floor, and lay up the wheat
into the garner; but the chaff He will burn with unquenchable fire." Let
not the chaff scoff at the wheat; in this He speaketh truth, and deceiveth
no one. Be ye then in yourselves among many a many, few though ye be in
comparison of a certain many. So large a mass is to come out of this floor,
as to fill the garner of heaven. For the Lord Christ would not contradict
Himself, who hath said, "Many there are who enter in by the narrow gate,
many who go to ruin through the wide gate;" contradict Himself, who hath
in another place said, "Many shall come from the East and West." "Many" then
are the "few;" both "few" and "many." Are the "few" one sort, and the "many"
another? No. But the "few" are themselves the "many;" "few" in comparison
of the lost, "many in the society of the Angels. Hearken, dearly Beloved.
The Apocalypse hath this written; "After this I beheld of all languages,
and nations, and tribes, a great multitude, which no man can number, coming
with white robes and palms." This is the mass of the saints. With how much
clearer voice will the floor say, when it has been fanned, separated from
the crowd of ungodly, and evil, and false Christians, when those who "press"
and do not "touch" (for a certain woman in the Gospel "touched," the crowd
"pressed" Christ), shall have been severed unto everlasting fire; when all
they then, who are to be damned shall have been separated off, with how great
assurance will the purified mass, standing at the Right Hand, fearing now
for itself the admixture of no evil men, nor the loss of any of the good,
now about to reign with Christ, say, "I know that the Lord is great"!
By St. John Chryostom
put He forth unto them, saying, The Kingdom of Heaven is like to a grain
of mustard seed."
That is, since He had said, that of the crop three parts are lost, and but
one saved, and in the very part again which is saved so great damage ensues;
lest they should say, "And who, and how many will be the faithful?" this
fear again He removes, by the parable of the mustard seed leading them on
to belief, and signifying that in any case the gospel shall be spread abroad.
Therefore He brought forward the similitude of this herb, which has a very
strong resemblance to the subject in hand; "Which indeed is the least," He
saith, "of all seeds, but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs,
and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches
Thus He meant to set forth the most decisive sign of its greatness. "Even
so then shall it be with respect to the gospel too," saith He. Yea, for His
disciples were weakest of all, and least of all; but nevertheless, because
of the great power that was in them, It hath been unfoldedin every part of
After this He adds the leaven to this similitude, saying,
"The Kingdom of Heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and hid in
three measures ofmeal, until the whole was leavened."
For as this converts the large quantity of meal into its own quality, even
so shall ye convert the whole world.
And see His wisdom, in that He brings in things natural, implying that as
the one cannot fail to take place, so neither the other. For say not this
to me: "What shall we be able to do, twelve men, throwing ourselves upon
so vast a multitude?" Nay, for this very thing most of all makes your might
conspicuous, that ye mix with the multitude and are not put to flight. As
therefore the leaven then leavens the lump when it comes close to the meal,
and not simply close, but so as to be actually mixed with it (for He said
not, "put," simply, but "hid"); so also ye, when ye cleave to your enemies,
and are made one with them, then shall ye get the better of them. And as
the leaven, though it be buried, yet is not destroyed, but by little and
little transmutes all into its own condition; of like sort will the event
be here also, with respect to the gospel. Fear ye not then, because I said
there would be much injurious dealing: for even so shall ye shine forth,
and get the better of all.
But by "three measures," here, He meant many. for He is wont to take this
number for a multitude.
And marvel not, if discoursing about the kingdom, He made mention of a little
seed and of leaven; for He was discoursing with men inexperienced and ignorant,
and such as needed to be led on by those means. For so simple were they,
that even after all this, they required a good deal of explanation.
Where now are the children of the Greeks? Let them learn Christ's power,
seeing the verity of His deeds, and on either ground let them adore Him,
that He both foretold so great a thing, and fulfilled it. Yea, for it is
He that put the power into the leaven. With this intent He mingled also with
the multitude those who believe on Him, that we might impart unto the rest
of our wisdom. Let no one therefore reprove us for being few. For great is
the power of the gospel, and that which hath been once leavened, becomes
leaven again for what remains. And as a spark, when it hath caught in timber,
makes what hath been burnt up already increase the flame, and so proceeds
to the rest; even so the gospel likewise. But He said not fire, but "leaven."
Why might this be? Because in that case the whole effect is not of the fire,
but partly of the timber too that is kindled, but in this the leaven doth
the whole work by itself.
Now if twelve men leavened the whole world, imagine how great our baseness,
in that when we being so many are not able to amend them that remain; we,
who ought to be enough for ten thousand worlds, and to become leaven to them.
"But they," one may say, "were apostles." And what then? Were they not partakers
with thee? Were they not brought up in cities? Did they not enjoy the same
benefits? Did they not practise trades? What, were they angels? What, came
they down from Heaven.?
"But they had signs," it will be said. It was not the signs that made them
admirable. How long shall we use those miracles as cloaks for our own remissness?
Behold the choir of the Saints, that they shone not by those miracles.Why,
many who had actually cast out devils, because they wrought iniquity, instead
of being admired, did even incur punishment.
And what can it be then, he will say, that showed them great? Their contempt
of wealth, their despising glory, their freedom from worldly things. Since
surely, had they wanted these qualities, and been slaves of their passions,
though they had raised ten thousand dead, so far from doing any good, they
would even have been accounted deceivers. Thus it is their life, so bright
on all sides, which also draws down the grace of the Spirit.
What manner of miracle did John work, that he fixed on himself the attentionof
so many cities? For as to the fact that he did no wondrous works, hear the
evangelist, saying, "John did no miracle."And whence did Elias become admirable?
Was it not from his boldness towards the king? from his zeal towards God?
from his voluntary poverty? from his garment of sheep's skin, and his cave,
and his mountains? For his miracles He did after all these. And as to Job,
what manner of miracle did he work in sight of the devil, that he was amazed
at him? No miracle indeed, but a life that shone and displayed an endurance
firmer than any adamant. What manner of miracle did David, yet being young,
that God should say, "I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after mine
own heart?"And Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, what dead body did they raise?
what leper did they cleanse? Knowest thou not that the miracles, except we
be sober, do even harm in many cases? Thus many of the Corinthians were severed
one from another; thus many of the Romans were carried away with pride; thus
was Simon cast out. Thus he, who at a certain time had a desire to follow
Christ, was rejected, when he had been told, "The foxes have holes, and the
birds of the air nests."For each of these, one aiming at the wealth, another
at the glory, which the miracles bring, fell away and perished. But care
of practice, and love of virtue, so far from generating such a desire, doth
even take it away when it exists.
And Himself too, when He was making laws for His own disciples, what said
He? "Do miracles, that men may see you"? By no means. But what? "Let your
light shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your
Father which is in Heaven."And to Peter again He said not, "If thou lovest
me," "do miracles," but "feed my sheep."And whereas He everywhere distinguishes
him with James and John above all the rest, for what, I pray thee, did He
distinguish them? For their miracles? Nay, all alike cleansed the lepers,
and raised the dead; and to all alike He gave that authority.
Whence then had these the advantage? From the virtue in their soul. Seest
thou how everywhere practice is required, and the proof by works? "For by
their fruits," saith He, "ye shall know them." And what commends our own
life? Is it indeed a display of miracles, or the perfection of an excellent
conversation? Very evidently it is the second; but as to the miracles, they
both have their origin from hence, and terminate herein. For both He that
shows forth an excellent life, draws to Himself this gift, and he that receives
the gift, receives it for this end, that he may amend other men's lives.
Since even Christ for this end wrought those miracles, that having made Himself
thereby credible, and drawn men unto Him, He might bring virtue into our
life. Wherefore also He lays more stress of the two on this. For He is not
at all satisfied with the signs only, but He also threatens hell, and promises
a kingdom, and lays down those startling laws, and all things He orders to
this end, that He may make us equal to the angels.
And why say I, that Christ doth all for this object? Why, even thou, should
one give thee thy choice, to raise dead men by His name, or to die for His
name; which I pray thee, of the two wouldest thou rather accept? Is it not
quite plain, the latter? and yet the one is a miracle, the other but a work.
And what, if one offered thee to make grass gold, or to be able to despise
all wealth as grass, wouldest thou not rather accept this latter? and very
reasonably. For mankind would be attracted by this more than any way. For
if they saw the grass changed into gold, they would covet themselves also
to acquire that power, as Simon did, and the love of money would be increased
in them; but if they saw us all contemning and neglecting gold, as though
it were grass, they would long ago have been delivered from this disease.
Seest thou that our practice has more power to do good? By practice I mean,
not thy fasting, nor yet thy strewing sackcloth and ashes under thee, but
if thou despise wealth, as it ought to be despised; if thou be kindly
affectioned, if thou give thy bread to the hungry, if thou control anger,
if thou cast out vainglory, if thou put away envy. So He Himself used to
teach: for, "Learn of me," saith He, "for I am meek and lowly in heart."He
did not say, "for I fasted," although surely He might have spoken of the
forty days, yet He saith not this; but, "I am meek and lowly in heart." And
again, when sending them out, He said not, "Fast," but, "Eat of all that
is set before you."With regard to wealth, however, He required of them great
strictness, saying, "Provide not gold, or silver, or brass, in your purses."
And all this I say, not to depreciate fasting, God forbid, but rather highly
to commend it. But I grieve when other duties being neglected, ye think it
enough for salvation, having but the last place in the choir of virtue. For
the greatest thing is charity, and moderation, and almsgiving; which hits
a higher mark even than virginity.
Wherefore, if thou desire to become equal to the apostles, there is nothing
to hinder thee. For to have arrived at this virtue only suffices for thy
not at all falling short of them. Let no one therefore wait for miracles.For
though the evil spirit is grieved, when he is driven out of a body, yet much
more so, when he sees a soul delivered from sin. For indeed this is his great
power.This power caused Christ to die, that He might put an end to it. Yea,
for this brought in death; by reason of this all things have been turned
upside down. If then thou remove this, thou hast cut out the nerves of the
devil, thou hast "bruised his head," thou hast put an end to all his might,
thou hast scattered his host, thou hast exhibited a sign greater than all
The saying is not mine, but the blessed Paul's. For when he had said, "Covet
earnestly the best gifts, and yet show I unto you a more excellent way;"he
did not speak next of a sign, but of charity, the root of all our good things.
If then we practise this, and all the self-denial that flows from it. we
shall have no need of signs; even as on the other hand, if we do not practise
it, we shall gain nothing by the signs.
Bearing in mind then all this, let us imitate those things whereby the apostles
became great. And whereby did they become great? Hear Peter, saying, "Behold
we have forsaken all. and followed Thee; what shall we have therefore?"Hear
also Christ saying to them, Ye shall sit upon twelve thrones," and, "every
one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or father, or mother, shall receive
an hundredfold in this world, and shall inherit everlasting life."From all
worldly things, therefore, let us withdraw ourselves, and dedicate ourselves
to Christ, that we may both be made equal to the apostles according to His
declaration, and may enjoy eternal life; unto which may we all attain, by
the grace and love towards man of our Lord Jesus Christ to whom be glory
and might forever and ever. Amen.