St.Valentine (Valentino) was a Roman priest who performed marriages in spite
of Claudius II's law against such (Claudius believed that marriage was
distracting to his soldiers, so outlawed it to them for a time). Fr. Valentine
was martyred in A.D. 270 on the Flammian way, and at the site of his martyrdom,
Julius I built a popular basilica.
Other than this, little is known. Because two other St. Valentines share
this Feast day ("Valentine" was an extremely common name for Christians as
it has the same root as the word "valor"), often their stories are confused,
but it is the Roman priest-martyr whom we honor during the liturgy.
The relics of St. Valentine -- at least a great majority of them -- are,
interestingly enough, in the Whitefriar Church associated with the Calced
Carmelites in Dublin, Ireland. They were excavated from the Cemetery of St.
Hippolytus, on the Triburtine Way in Rome in 1835 and were then given to
Fr. Spratt, an Irish Carmelite, by Pope Gregory XVI in 1836. The relics,
with a small vessel tinged with
his blood," were deposited "in a wooden case covered with painted paper,
well closed, tied with a red silk ribbon and sealed with our seals and we
have so delivered and consigned to him, and we have granted unto him power
in the Lord, to the end that he may retain to himself, give to others, transmit
beyond the city (Rome) and in any church, oratory or chapel, to expose and
place the said blessed holy body for the public veneration of the faithful
without, however, an Office and Mass, conformably to the decree of the Sacred
Congregation of Rites, promulgated on the 11th day of August 1691," as the
letter accompanying the relics reads. On this Feast Day, his relics are carried
in procession, and a special Mass is offered for young people and lovers.
Because of his
Nuptial Masses, he became the patron of lovers, the affianced, and married
couples, and fortuitous to the priest's association with romance is the belief
that halfway through the month of February, birds choose their mates, hence
St. Valentine's association with birds, especially lovebirds and doves. Chaucer
mentions this belief in his "Parliament of Foules":
For this was sent
on Seynt Valentyne's day
Whan every foul cometh ther to choose his mate.
is the fact that red is both the color of Martrys and the color associated
with love. Red roses are also a symbol of both martyrom and love, and had
also always been associated with the Roman godess of love, Venus.
Venus' son, Cupid ("Eros" in Greek), god of love, was originally depicted
as a very handsome young man, but now as a winged putto bearing a bow and
arrow with which to smite hearts with love. His image, along with the image
of hearts he has pierced with his arrows, are ubiquitous symbols of romantic
love on this day.
Oldest existing valentine, British Museum
Day cards are a very ancient custom; one of the oldest extant "valentines,"
as such St. Valentine's Day greetings -- and the persons to whom they're
sent -- came to be known, was sent in 1477 by Margery Brews to her fiancé,
John Paston, and can be seen now in the British Museum. It reads:
Unto my right
well-beloved Valentine John Paston, squire, be this bill delivered.
Right reverent and worshipful and my right well-beloved valentine, I recommend
me unto you full heartedly, desiring to hear of your welfare, which I beseech
Almighty God long for to preserve unto his pleasure and your hearts desire.
And if it pleases you to hear of my welfare, I am not in good health of body
nor of heart, nor shall I be till I hear from you.
For there knows no creature what pain that I endure, And even on the pain
of death I would reveal no more.
And my lady my mother hath laboured the matter to my father full diligently,
but she can no more get than you already know of, for which God knoweth I
am full sorry.
But if you love me, as I trust verily that you do, you will not leave me
therefore. For even if you had not half the livelihood that you have, for
to do the greatest labour that any woman alive might, I would not forsake
And if you command me to keep me true wherever I go, indeed I will do all
my might you to love and never anyone else.
And if my friends say that I do amiss, they shall not stop me from doing
My heart me bids evermore to love you truly over all earthly things.
And if they be never so angry, I trust it shall be better in time coming.
No more to you at this time, but the Holy Trinity have you in keeping.
And I beseech you that this bill be not seen by any non earthly creature
save only yourself.
And this letter was written at Topcroft with full heavy heart.
By your own Margery Brews
To send a very Catholic valentine to someone you love, how about using a
paraphrase of today's Collect as the basis for the text?
Grant, I beseech Thee, O almighty God,
that (Name of loved one), who celebrates the heavenly birthday of blessed
Valentine, Thy Martyr, may by his intercession be delivered from all the
evils that threaten (him/her). Through our Lord Jesus Christ, Thy Son, Who
liveth and reigneth with Thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, one God, world
...with all the
personal, mushy stuff at the bottom! For a romantic card for a spouse, some
of the poetry found in Solomon's Canticle
of Canticles -- a Book which uses marital love as a metaphor for God's
love for His Church -- cannot be surpassed for inspiration.
As to foods, oysters, chocolates, champagne, and heart-shaped foods are all
considered to be romantic.
Note to men: Don't forget St. Valentine's Day. Even the least romantic woman
appreciates being remembered on this lovely holy day. One needn't (shouldn't!)
spend lavish sums and buy into the marketing nonsense that has become associated
with all big Christian Feasts, but a single red rose is just as lovely as
an $80 dollar dozen, and chocolates in a small box are as delicious as those
in a large box; it is the thought that counts. And it costs nothing
to tell her you love her...
And a note to all: be sure to wish people "Happy Saint Valentine's
Day" rather than just "Happy Valentine's Day." This will help bring the deeper
meaning of the day into focus!