Apologia: The Fullness of Christian Truth

``Where the Bishop is, there let the multitude of believers be;
even as where Jesus is, there is the Catholic Church'' Ignatius of Antioch, 1st c. A.D

Lectio Divina

St. Jerome -- by Jacques Blanchard, 1632

"Ignorance of Scripture is ignorance of Christ." -- St. Jerome, A.D. 340-420

"To get the full flavor of an herb, it must be pressed between the fingers, so it is the same with the Scriptures; the more familiar they become, the more they reveal their hidden treasures and yield their indescribable riches."-- St. John Chrysostom, A.D. 347-407

"The New Testament lies hidden in the Old and the Old Testament is unveiled in the New" -- St. Augustine, A.D. 354-430

"All troubles of the Church, all the evils in the world, flow from this source: that men do not by clear and sound knowledge and serious consideration penetrate into the truths of Sacred Scripture." -- attributed to St. Theresa of Avila, A.D. 1515-1582


Lectio Divina (pronounced "Lec-tsee-oh Di-vee-nah") means "Divine Reading" and refers specifically to a method of Scripture reading practiced by monastics since the beginning of the Church.

The early centrality of reading of Sacred Scripture, and then meditating and praying over its meaning, is evident in the 48th chapter of the Rule of St. Benedict (A.D. 480-453), a book written by the Great Saint to guide monastic life.

But it was an 11th c. Carthusian prior named Guigo 1 who formalized Lectio Divina, describing the method in a letter written to a fellow religious. This letter, which has become known as Scala Paradisi -- the Stairway to Heaven -- describes a 4-runged ladder to Heaven, each rung being one of the four steps in his method of Bible reading. Those steps, and Guigo's brief descriptions of them, are:


  • lectio (reading): "looking on Holy Scripture with all one's will and wit"

  • meditatio (meditation): "a studious insearching with the mind to know what was before concealed through desiring proper skill"

  • oratio (prayer): "a devout desiring of the heart to get what is good and avoid what is evil"

  • contemplatio (contemplation): "the lifting up of the heart to God tasting somewhat of the heavenly sweetness and savour"

Through the practice of Lectio Divina by monastics in group settings, three other steps are sometimes added to the four above such that the steps become:

  • statio (position)

  • lectio (reading)

  • meditatio (meditation)

  • oratio (prayer)

  • contemplatio (contemplation)

  • collatio (discussion)

  • actio (action)

The Steps in Detail

First, we arrange a place so it is restful, warm, and non-distracting. This may involve the lighting of candles, the burning of incense, the shutting of doors and drawing of curtains -- whatever makes one feel calm and at peace. Then we assume a bodily posture that is conducive to prayer and reading. We breathe slowly, focusing on the Holy Name of Jesus and nothing else, until we are relaxed and able to focus our attention solely on Scripture.  If our minds wander, we gently bring our attention back to the Holy Name of Our Lord, breathing in and out rhythmically. Note that, unlike in Eastern prayer which seeks to empty oneself to be open to some great "Nothing", we are ever mindful of the One Almighty Triune and Transcendent God, and are trying to calm ourselves so that what He might reveal to us through His Word may more easily be perceived.

It is good if the place chosen for Lectio Divina is a comfortable area chosen just for this and other prayerful activities. The presence of relevant icons and other visual aids to meditation can be of great benefit. Now pray a prayer to the Holy Ghost, such as this one:

A Prayer Before the Reading of Any Part of the Holy Scripture

Come Holy Ghost, fill the hearts and minds of the faithful servants, and inflame them with the fire of Thy divine love.

Let us pray: O God, who by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost, didst instruct the hearts of thy faithful servants; grant us in the same Spirit, to discern what is right, and enjoy His comfort forever, through our Lord Jesus Christ, Who liveth and reigneth, one God, with Thee and the same Spirit, world without end. Amen.

When we are relaxed and in a contemplative mode, we trace the Sign of the Cross on the book of Scripture, kiss the Cross we traced, and then open it to read. Some may want to focus on Scripture from that day's Propers. Others may want to read the Bible straight through, starting with Genesis. Others may want to focus only on the New Testament or the Psalms. We aren't trying to "accomplish a goal" of reading X amount; we read what is easily digested at that time. Whichever selection we choose, we read it with our minds, slowly, gently, coming to an understanding of the words themselves.

Having a solid orthodox Catholic commentary (pre-Vatican II commentary with Imprimatur or the rare, well-chosen post-Vatican II commentary), a nice Concordance, etc., in order to get a good grasp of the meaning of the actual words -- their historical cultural context, their etymologies, the Fathers' thoughts on the relevant Scripture, etc. -- is imperative. We should always approach Scripture with the mind of the Church, in the spirit of the Ethopian eunuch who asked Philip to guide him:

Acts 8:30-31
And Philip running thither, heard him reading the prophet Isaias. And he said: Thinkest thou that thou understandest what thou readest? Who said: And how can I, unless some man shew me? And he desired Philip that he would come up and sit with him.

We should always keep in mind Peter's admonition that "no prophecy of scripture is made by private interpretation" (2 Peter 1:20) and that Scripture can be difficult to understand, something "which the unlearned and unstable wrest...to their own destruction" (2 Peter 3:16).

If you come to a verse you don't understand, or that you understand in a way that is contrary to Catholic teaching, seek traditional Catholic commentary on it. Any apparent contradiction between Scripture and Catholic teaching is just that: apparent, and not real. As an example, even a simple verse such as one that refers to Mary's "firstborn" will be misunderstood if one is ignorant of Jewish law, as are many Protestants who believe that reference to a "firstborn" means there must be a "secondborn," and who then go on to deny Mary's virginity. Seek a Catholic commentary which would refer you, in this case, to the Old Testament law of the "firstborn" and will teach you what that word really means (see Exodus 13:2, Exodus 13:14-15, Numbers 18:15 and research the term "pidyon ha-ben").

At any rate, in Lectio, we are reading for the literal sense of the words, trying to understand the reality the writer of the text intended to convey.


Now we meditate on what we have read, perhaps even reading it again, visualizing it and listening for the aspect of it that reveals the Divine Mysteries. We want the deeper, spiritual meanings of the words now, and read for its anagogical (or "eschatalogical") sense and its typical (or "allegorical") sense -- i.e., we consider types and anti-types, shadows and symbolism in order to understand the deeper reality the Holy Ghost intends to convey by arranging nature and history as He did, thereby inspiring the writer of the text to write as he did.

We ask God to for the grace to be changed by what we have read, to come more fully into being what He wants us to be, and to help us apply the tropological (or "moral") sense of the Scripture to our lives.

We rest in gratitude for God and His Word.

If we are engaging in Lectio Divina with others, we discuss what we've learned.

We live what we have learned.

Consider engaging in Lectio Divina with your family, perhaps on the Lord's Day each week (if not daily). Discuss Scripture together, encouraging even the littlest ones of your family to participate (the very small can draw pictures of the stories you are reading). Make the Bible a familar and integral part of their lives.

Bibles and Commentary

Finally, please, please, use a solid translation of Scripture! The Douay-Rheims version is the traditional Catholic standard in the English language; the Latin Vulgate, translated from the Greek and Hebrew by St. Jerome (A.D. 340-420 ), is the "official" Scripture of the Church. I strongly encourage you to get a copy of the one of these you are able to best understand, and use it exclusively for Lectio Divina, family devotions, etc. Though the Vulgate and Douay are not perfect translations, they are vastly superior to most modern translations, even so-called "Catholic" ones, which can be quite modernized -- not only with obvious things such as "inclusive language," but with subtle changes that can profoundly affect one's understanding of God's Truth. As an example: I Corinthians 9:5 reads:

Have we not power to carry about a woman, a sister, as well as the rest of the apostles, and the brethren of the Lord, and Cephas?

But in the 1991 New American Bible, a translation approved by American Catholic Bishops, the same verse reads:

Do we not have the right to take along a Christian wife, as do the rest of the apostles, and the brothers of the Lord, and Kephas?

And which is the right translation? The words translated as "a woman, a sister" in the Douay, and as "Christian wife" in the NAB, are "adelphên gunaika" in the Greek. "Gunaika" means both "woman" and "wife," just as "femme" does in French; "adelphên" means "sister." St. Paul used "adelphên" to modify "gunaika" in order to make clear that he was not referring to "wives," Christian or not, but to female disciples such as those that always followed Jesus -- women who are referred to as "gunaika" in Matthew 27:55-56, Luke 8:1-3, etc. The new "Catholic" translation is one written by "Catholics" who want to attack celibacy. And so it goes. For more on the out and out heresies of the New American Bible -- the Bible used as the basis for American Novus Ordo lectionaries -- see this article (will open in new browser window): New American Bible: Is It Good for Catholics? [PDF].

As said, the best all around English-language Bible to have is the Douay-Rheims, but if you can get the version of the Douay-Rheims that includes commentary by Fr. George Leo Haydock, all the better. Printed originally in 1812, this complete Bible comes in two volumes and includes not only Fr. Haydock's commentary, but the commentary of the Fathers and Doctors of the Church throughout. It can be purchased here (link will open in new browser window).

For a nice but less complete Bible commentary for the average layman, see A Practical Commentary on Holy Scripture by Bishop Frederick Justus Knecht, D.D. (844 pp. Link will open in new browser window).

Here are a few online tools to help you (will open in new browser windows):

Douay-Rheims Bible
The Vulgate
The Unbound Bible
Douay Concordance
Bible Citations in the Summa

Odds and Ends

A partial indulgence is granted to the faithful, who, under the usual conditions and with the veneration due the divine word, make a spiritual reading from Sacred Scripture. A plenary indulgence is granted under the usual conditions if this reading is continued for at least one half an hour.

To read more about how to read the Bible, see "Providentissimus Deus," by Pope Leo XIII, and "Spiritus Paraclitus," by Benedict XV. Serious scholars see "Divino Afflante Spiritu," by Pope Pius XII.

See also the eighth way of prayer listed in The Nine Ways of Prayer of St. Dominic, an account of the Saint's modes of prayer as recalled by his spiritual children.

...and finally, how about reading a short, charming account of an 8th or 9th c. Irish monk's study of Scripture -- with his kitty-cat? Read this account here, off the "Catholics and the Animal World" page.


While on the topic of reading Sacred Scripture, I thought I'd include a few notes about "bibliomancy," that is, the use of Sacred Scripture in a way that seems random, but which is taken personally, as a sign from God. It's most often done, when one has a problem or question he needs answers to, by holding the Bible, spine down, over a table, closing one's eyes, allowing the Book to fall open as it will when you let go of it, pointing randomly to a verse, and then reading that verse in light of the question or problem you are having.  The practice is an old one, spoken of by St. Augustine himself. In fact, it is in part, through bibliomancy  that he became a Christian in the first place. In Book VIII, Chapter XII of his "Confessions," he describes how he was instructed to use bibliomancy in order to learn the Truths he sought:

But when a profound reflection had, from the secret depths of my soul, drawn together and heaped up all my misery before the sight of my heart, there arose a mighty storm, accompanied by as mighty a shower of tears. Which, that I might pour forth fully, with its natural expressions, I stole away from Alypius; for it suggested itself to me that solitude was fitter for the business of weeping. So I retired to such a distance that even his presence could not be oppressive to me. Thus was it with me at that time, and he perceived it; for something, I believe, I had spoken, wherein the sound of my voice appeared choked with weeping, and in that state had I risen up. He then remained where we had been sitting, most completely astonished. I flung myself down, how, I know not, under a certain fig-tree, giving free course to my tears, and the streams of my eyes gushed out, an acceptable sacrifice unto You.  And, not indeed in these words, yet to this effect, spoke I much unto You—"But You, O Lord, how long?" "How long, Lord? Will You be angry for ever? Oh, remember not against us former iniquities;" for I felt that I was enthralled by them. I sent up these sorrowful cries—"How long, how long? Tomorrow, and tomorrow? Why not now? Why is there not this hour an end to my uncleanness?"

I was saying these things and weeping in the most bitter contrition of my heart, when, lo, I heard the voice as of a boy or girl, I know not which, coming from a neighbouring house, chanting, and oft repeating, "Take up and read; take up and read." Immediately my countenance was changed, and I began most earnestly to consider whether it was usual for children in any kind of game to sing such words; nor could I remember ever to have heard the like. So, restraining the torrent of my tears, I rose up, interpreting it no other way than as a command to me from Heaven to open the book, and to read the first chapter I should light upon. For I had heard of Antony, that, accidentally coming in while the gospel was being read, he received the admonition as if what was read were addressed to him, "Go and sell that you have, and give to the poor, and you shall have treasure in heaven; and come and follow me." And by such oracle was he immediately converted unto You. So quickly I returned to the place where Alypius was sitting; for there had I put down the volume of the apostles, when I rose thence. I grasped, opened, and in silence read that paragraph on which my eyes first fell—"Not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying; but put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof."  No further would I read, nor did I need; for instantly, as the sentence ended—by a light, as it were, of security infused into my heart—all the gloom of doubt vanished away.

Closing the book, then, and putting either my finger between, or some other mark, I now with a tranquil countenance made it known to Alypius. And he thus disclosed to me what was wrought in him, which I knew not. He asked to look at what I had read. I showed him; and he looked even further than I had read, and I knew not what followed. This it was, verily, "Him that is weak in the faith, receive;"  which he applied to himself, and discovered to me.


"Take up and read" -- in Latin, "tolle et lege." The Antony he refers to is St. Antony of the Desert, whose life was described in St. Athanasius's "Life of St. Antony," whose bibliomancy took a different form. Instead of opening Sacred Scripture to a random page, he entered a church and paid heed to the first words from Scripture that he heard. From "The Life of St. Antony," which you can read in full here, off "The Religious Life" page:

After the death of his father and mother he was left alone with one little sister: his age was about eighteen or twenty, and on him the care both of home and sister rested. Now it was not six months after the death of his parents, and going according to custom into the Lord's House, he communed with himself and reflected as he walked how the Apostles left all and followed the Saviour; and how they in the Acts sold their possessions and brought and laid them at the Apostles' feet for distribution to the needy, and what and how great a hope was laid up for them in heaven. Pondering over these things he entered the church, and it happened the Gospel was being read, and he heard the Lord saying to the rich man, 'If you would be perfect, go and sell that you have and give to the poor; and come follow Me and you shall have treasure in heaven.' Antony, as though God had put him in mind of the Saints, and the passage had been read on his account, went out immediately from the church, and gave the possessions of his forefathers to the villagers— they were three hundred acres, productive and very fair— that they should be no more a clog upon himself and his sister. And all the rest that was movable he sold, and having got together much money he gave it to the poor, reserving a little however for his sister's sake.

In St. Gregory of Tours's "Historia Francorum" (The History of the Franks), bibliomancy is mentioned several times. In Book II, 37 we read:

The king himself sent envoys to the blessed church saying: "Go, and perhaps you will receive some omen of victory :.­ from the holy temple." Then giving them gifts to set up in the holy place, he said: "If thou, O Lord, art my helper, and hast determined to surrender this unbelieving nation, always striving against thee, into my hands, consent to reveal it propitiously at the entrance to the church of St. Martin, so that I may know that thou wilt deign to be favorable to thy servant." Clovis' servants went on their way according to the king's command, and drew near to the place, and when they were about to enter the holy church, the first singer, without any pre-arrangement, sang this response: "Thou hast girded me, O Lord, with strength unto the battle; thou hast subdued under me those that rose up against me, and hast made mine enemies turn their backs unto me, and thou hast utterly destroyed them that hated me." On hearing this singing they thanked the Lord, and paying their vow to the blessed confessor they joyfully made their report to the king.

In Book IV, 16, we read how "When they are ready to fight, Chramnus causes a report of Clothar's death to be circulated and Charibert and Gunthram hasten off; Chramnus marches to Dijon where he consults the Bible as to his future." In Book V, 14, we read how the Book of Solomon was used in bibliomancy:

But Merovech followed Gunthram's advice and, desiring to avenge himself, he ordered Marileif the chief physician to be seized as he was returning from the king's presence, and after beating him most cruelly he took away the gold and silver and other valuables which he had with him and left him naked, and would have killed him if he had not escaped from the hands of those who were beating him and taken refuge in the church. And later we clothed him and having obtained his life sent him back to Poitiers. Now Merovech charged many crimes to his father and stepmother. But although they were partly true it was not acceptable to God I suppose that they should be made known through a son. This I learned to be so later on. For one day I was invited to dine with him and when we were sitting together he begged urgently that something be read for the instruction of his soul. So I opened the book of Solomon and took the first verse that came which contained the following: " The eye of him who looketh at his father askance, the ravens of the valleys shall pick it out." Although he did not understand it, I believed that this verse had been given by the Lord.

And again, in Book V, 49, bibliomancy comes into play:

On the next day, that is, the day before Easter Sunday, Leudast came to the city of Tours and pretending to have other business, seized Plato the archdeacon and Galien, and bound them and ordered them led to the queen, loaded with chains and without their robes. I heard of this while I sat in the bishop's house, and in sadness and worry I went into the oratory and took the book of David's song, that when opened a verse might give some consolation. And this is what I found: "He led them in hope and they did not fear, and the sea covered their enemies."

This sort of thing was a very common phenomenon among the early and medieval Christians, and there were corrolaries in the pagan world as well. For ex., Sir William Smith writes in his "A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities" (1857): 

At Pharae, in Achaia, there was an oracle of Hermes. His altar stood in the middle of the market-place. Incense was offered here, oil lamps were lighted, before it, a copper coin was placed upon the altar, and after this the question was put to the god by a whisper in his ear. The person who consulted him shut his own ears, and immediately left the market-place. The first remark that he heard made by any one after leaving the market-place was believed to imply the answer of Hermes.

So, what to make of all this? I don't know, to be frank. To my knowledge, there is no official church teaching on the matter. Divination is proscribed, of course, but divination implies reliance upon demons or the purely natural world for signs. My take is that appealing to God (not to Hermes or any other false god, obviously) and using Sacred Scripture to find answers has never hurt anyone, but this is something for you to discuss with your priest or spiritual adviser.

1 Guigo lived A.D. 1083/4 - 27 July 1136/8. He was also known as "Guigues du Chastel" or "Guigo de Castro" or "Guigo II"


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